You are on page 1of 18

BTY100-Lec# 6.

2
Biomedical Engineering
Implants

Created By:
Robinka Khajuria
(Biotech) LPU
LPU BTY100

OUTLINE
Implants
Artificial Pacemaker
Cochlear Implant
Dental Implant

LPU BTY100

Implants
An implant is a kind of medical device made
to replace and act as a missing biological
structure.
Examples include: artificial pacemaker and
cochlear implants.
Implants are man-made devices, in contrast
to a transplant, which is a transplanted
biomedical tissue.

LPU BTY100

Identify the
implant!!!!
LPU BTY100

What is the Location


of this implant in the
body???

Artificial cardiac pacemaker

Natural Pacemaker:

The contraction of heart muscle in all animals is


initiated by electrical impulses.
The rate at which these impulses fire controls the
heart rate.
The cells that create these rhythmical impulses are
called pacemaker cells, and they directly control the
heart rate.
The sinoatrial node (SA node) is a group of cells
positioned on the wall of the right atrium.

LPU BTY100

Artificial cardiac
pacemaker???

Pacemakers are used to treat arrhythmias .


Arrhythmias are problems with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat.
During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat : too fast, too slow, or with
an irregular rhythm.
During an arrhythmia, the heart may not be able to pump enough
blood to the body.
This can cause symptoms such as fatigue (tiredness), shortness of
breath, or fainting. Severe arrhythmias can damage the body's vital
organs and may even cause loss of consciousness or death.
A pacemaker also can help a person who has abnormal heart rhythms
resume a more active lifestyle.

LPU BTY100

COMPONENTS
Artificial pacemaker devices generally include the following
components:
Pulse generator :A thin metal case which contains the
power source producing the electrical impulses of the
pacemaker.
In addition, the pulse generator contains a small computer
processor that can be programmed to set the rate of the
pacemaker, the energy output, and various other parameters.
The pulse generator for most modern permanent pacemakers
weighs one to two ounces.

LPU BTY100

COMPONENTS
Flexible insulated wires: carry electrical
impulses from the generator to the heart
muscle and relay information concerning the
heart's natural activities back to the pacemaker.
There may be several such wires, or leads,
placed within the heart, most commonly in the
right atrium and right ventricle.
One or more electrodes at the tips of the leads
transmit electrical impulses to the heart muscle
when needed.

LPU BTY100

WORKING

LPU BTY100

Cochlear Implant
The human ear is made up of thousands of
hair cells (present in cochlea), which when
working properly are stimulated by sound, and
then begin to vibrate.
Then these vibrations are converted into
nerve impulses which are taken up to the
brain to be interpreted via auditory nerve.
In people having deafness, the hair cells are
unable to function, therefore severing the path
of sound to the brain.
LPU BTY100

How the normal ear


works?

http://www.childrensuniversity.manchester.ac.uk/interactives/science/brainand
senses/ear/
LPU BTY100

Cochlear Implants
Muscles can change electrical energy into mechanical
energy,
Electrodes can give off such electrical impulses,
stimulating surrounding nerves. This allows for
signals to by-pass damaged parts, such as hair cells
or the ear, yet still stimulate the nerve.
A lead ofelectrodesisimplanted in the ear to
replicate the function of hair cells and
stimulate the cochlea.
The implanted lead contains anywhere from 1 to
22electrodes, each being stimulated by different
frequencies and pitches.
Theseelectrodesthen stimulate the nerves and then
send it to the brain via the hearing nerve.

LPU BTY100

Cochlear Implants

LPU BTY100

An implant has the


following parts:
A microphone, which picks
up sound from the
environment.
A speech processor, which
selects and arranges sounds
picked up by the microphone.
A transmitter and
receiver/stimulator, which
receive signals from the
speech processor and
convert them into electric
impulses.
An electrode array, which
is a group of electrodes that
collects the impulses from
the stimulator and sends
them to different regions of
the auditory nerve.

LPU BTY100

Dental Implants
is a surgical component that interfaces with the bone
of the jaw to support a dental prosthesis such as a
crown, denture.
ence between
r
fe
if
D
The basis for modern dental implants is a biologic
sthetic and
o
r
P
process called osseointegration where materials,
nt!!
such as titanium, form an intimate bond Im
topla
bone.
The implant fixture is first placed, so that it is likely to
osseointegrate, then a dental prosthetic is added.
A variable amount of healing time is required for
osseointegration before either the dental prosthetic (a
tooth, bridge or denture) is attached to the implant.
Prostheti
c

Dental
Implant
LPU BTY100

The prerequisites to long-term success


of dental implants are healthy bone
and Gums.
The final prosthetic can be either:
fixed: where a person cannot remove
the denture or teeth from their mouth
or
Removable: where they can remove
Removabl
the prosthetic.
e

Fixed
LPU BTY100

Risks and Complications


divided into 3 categories:
1.those that occur during surgery (excessive
bleeding or nerve injury)
2.those that occur in the first six months (infection
and failure to osseointegrate)
3.those that occur long-term ( mechanical failures).
4.In the presence of healthy tissues, a well
integrated implant with appropriate biomechanical
loads can have long term success rates of 93 to
98 percent for the fixture and 10 to 15 year
lifespans for the prosthetic teeth.

LPU BTY100

Next Class:
BIONICS
LPU BTY100