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CGE 674

FORMATION
EVALUATION
CHAPTER 1
PART 2
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TYPICAL LOGGING TOOL

Shorter tool length means


less rat hole required
Less tool components
means shorter rig up and
rig down time

TYPICAL LOGGING TOOL

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TOOL CONFIGURATION

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WIRELINE UNIT

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SPONTANEOUS
POTENTIAL (SP)

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SP TOOL
SP is a recording of the
difference between the
electrical potential of a
movable electrode in the
borehole and the electrical
potential of a fixed surface
electrode

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SP TOOL

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Source: DG Bowen, 2005

Principle of Spontaneous Potential SP Log


Source: Halliburton

Liquid junction effects

Liquid junction potential


Source: Halliburton

SP due to membrane potential

Resultant SP from liquid junction and membrane potentials

Source: Halliburton

SP TOOL

Application of SP tool:
1. Permeable zone identification
2. Fluid type identification
3. Connate water salinity determination
Across shales, SP curve defines a more or less straight line to
represent shale baseline.
Across permeable formation , SP curev show defelection from
shale baseline. If the deflection is positive, Rmf<Rw and if the
defelection is negative, Rw<Rmf.
In poor permeability formations, depleted reservoir or the use
of very heavy drilling mud may result in R w derived from SP to
be too low.
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Reversed SP
positive
deflection

Normal SP
negative
deflection

Normal and reversed SP deflections


Source: Halliburton

Positive SP deflections indicating Rmf < Rw


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Shale base line

Negative SP
Deflections

Negative SP deflections indicating Rmf > Rw

GAMMA RAY

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GAMMA RAY TOOL


GR tool measures the natural radioactivity of the formation.
GR logs normally reflects the shale content as clean formations
usually have very low level of radioactivity except from contaminant
(volcanic ash, granite wash)
Total GR measured by the log can be separated into its respective
portions of potassium, thorium and uranium using spectral analysis
technique.
GR reading is also affected by the hole condition such as hole
diamater, mudweight, tool size and tool position.
Common minerals exhibiting high GR are feldspars, micas and clays.

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GAMMA RAY LOG


Applications of GR Log
1. Discrimination between reservoir and non-reservoir rocks
2. Computation of clay content in reservoir rocks
3. Well to well correlation in a field
4. Identification of reservoir characteristics
5. Determination of depositional environment

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GAMMA RAY TOOL

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Source: Schlumberger

GAMMA RAY TOOL


GR Log measures
natural
Gamma
Rays and is used to
differentiate
between
reservoir
and
non-reservoir
rock

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GAMMA RAY TOOL

Russell, 1941
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POROSITY TOOL

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POROSITY CONCEPT

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APPLICATION OF POROSITY LOG

1. Computation of formation porosity using various porosity logs


2. Three main types of porosity logs
.
Bulk Density Log
.
Neutron Porosity Log
.
Sonic Porosity Log
3. Determination of Net Porous Reservoir Thickness
4. Identification of hydrocarbon type based on the combination
of various porosity logs

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LITHO DENSITY

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LITHO DENSITY

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LITHO DENSITY

Litho Density tool records the bulk density of formation and


used as primary porosity log.
Bulk density is measured by emitting medium energy
gamma rays into the formation and measuring the number
and energy of the gamma ray returning back to the tool.
As the gamma rays enter the formation, some are
absorbed, some pass through and others are slowed down
due to collision with electrons in the atom of the bulk
formation and scattered.
The last type of collision is known as Compton Scattering
and is the basic signal mode of the density tools.

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LITHO DENSITY

The photoelectric effect is described by absorbtion of the


incident photon of gamma energy and the emission of a
photoelectron.
The Litho Density log also records Photoelectric factor (PEF)
of the formation.
Each mineral will have its own PEF value
Litho density log can be used together with the neutron
porosity log to identify hydrocarbon bearing formation.

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LITHO DENSITY

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NEUTRON POROSITY

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NEUTRON POROSITY

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NEUTRON POROSITY

Neutron porosity log detects the thermal neutrons which return


after colliding with hydrogen atoms in the formation

Neutron are electrically charged particles, each having a mass


identical to the mass of hydrogen atom

High energy neutron are emitted from radioactive source in


the neutron tool.

Neutron will collide with nuclei of the formation minerals and


losses its energy.

The greatest energy loss occur when the neutron strikes a


nucleus of equal mass such as hydrogen nucleus.
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NEUTRON POROSITY

The neutron porosity log measures the Hydrogen Index (HI)


of the formation

Formation porosity is computed from the ratio of Near to Far


detector counts

The neutron porosity log is used together with the bulk


density log to identify the formation fluid

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NEUTRON POROSITY
Four types of collision experienced by neutron in the formation

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NEUTRON POROSITY

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NEUTRON POROSITY
Puteri-1

Scale : 1 : 500

DEPTH (2020.06M - 2120.04M)

DB : IPData (13)

DEPTH
50.
M
-370.
6.

2050

2100

GR (GAPI)
SP (MV)
HCAL (IN)

200. 0.2
-270. 0.2
16. 0.2

HLLD (OHMM)
HLLS (OHMM)
RXOZ (OHMM)

2000. 1.85
2000. 0.45
2000. -0.75

05/25/2006 11:58

RHOZ (G/C3)
NPHI (V/V)
HDRA (G/C3)

2.85
-0.15
0.25

SONIC (ACOUSTIC)

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SONIC TOOL

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SONIC TOOL

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SONIC TOOL

The sonic tool measures the time taken by sound wave to


travel across one foot of formation.

The sonic transit time is affected by the rock matrix, porosity


and the type of fluid in the pore spaces.

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SONIC TOOL

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SONIC TOOL

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SONIC TOOL

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SONIC TOOL

The Dipole Sonic Tool combines monopole and dipole sonic


acquisition capabilities.

This tool is capable to measure compressional sonic wave and


shear sonic wave. It provides both compressional sonic transit
time DTc and shear sonic transit time DTs of the formation.

Schlumberger tool: DSI (Dipole Shear Sonic Imager)

Baker Atlas: XMAC (Cross-Multipole Array Acoustilog)

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RESISTIVITY

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RESISTIVITY TOOL

Current is sent from A to B electrodes


and voltage is measured between M
and N electrodes.
Measure point is at half the spacing
between A and
M electrodes

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RESISTIVITY TOOL

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RESISTIVITY TOOL

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RESISTIVITY TOOL

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RESISTIVITY TOOL

Resistivity logs are used to differentiate hydrocarbon bearing


zones from the water bearing intervals.

Hydrocarbon bearing zones usually have high resistivites


accompanied by high or medium porosities.

Water bearing intervals usually have low resistivities


accompanied by high or medium porosities.

Tight or non-permeable zones have high resistivities


accompanied by low porosities.

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APPLICATION OF RESISTIVITY LOG

1. Identification of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs


2. Determination of Net Pay thicknesses
3. Calculation of hydrocarbon saturation
4. Identification of productive reservoirs
5. Estimation of formation permeability

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OTHER SUBSURFACE
DATA

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SOURCES OF SUBSURFACE DATA


Data needed:
Hydrocarbon thickness
Porosity
Saturation
Area
Hydrocarbon type
Permeability
Pressure

Data source:

Cuttings, Mud log


Coring
Logging
LWD Logging while drilling
WL Wireline (usually open hole)

Lithology
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MUD LOG

Immediate interpretation of what the drill bit has


penetrated and whether there are any hydrocarbons
present (a show).

Making maps of the subsurface geology.

Mud logs are very useful in fluid identification.

Gas and oil shows are used to corroborate fluid


identification from well logs.

Mud logs are also very useful in rock typing and matrix
identification
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MUD LOG

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CONVENTIONAL CORING
Taking a core requires that the regular drill bit be
removed from the hole. It is replaced with a "core bit",
which is capable of grinding out and retrieving the heavy
cylinder of rock.
The core bit is usually coated with small, sharp diamonds
that can grind through the hardest rock. A core bit cuts
very slowly.
A core is a solid cylinder of rock about 4-5 inches in
diameter, and a single core will usually be about 30 feet
long.

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CONVENTIONAL CORING

Whole Core

Slab 9/26/16
Core

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CONVENTIONAL CORING

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SIDEWALL CORING

This method is cheaper than the conventional coring.

Cores can be taken in hours, instead of days.

In sidewall coring, a slim wireline coring tool is run into the


hole. The tool may be of two general types; either "rotary
sidewall" or "percussion".

Typically, cores about 1" in diameter and 1" to 2" long can
be retrieved with this method.

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Percussion sidewall coring tool

Rotary sidewall coring tool

FLUID IDENTIFICATION

Identification of formation fluids is carried out by using two or


more porosity logs in combination.

Usually the bulk density and neutron porosity logs are used in
combination to detect gas bearing intervals.

Gas bearing intervals exhibit butterfly shape separation


between neutron and density logs.

Generally, oil and water give similar responses on the neutron


and density logs.

Oil can be differentiated from water by means of high


resistivity readings, in combination with porosity logs.
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FLUID IDENTIFICATION

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WIRELINE FORMATION TESTER

MDT (Modular Dynamics Tester) tool


from Schlumberger

This wireline formation testing tool can


take an unlimited number of pressure
measurements

Depending on the tool configuration


several formation fluid samples can be
taken during one trip in the well

This tool is used for identification of


formation fluids (from pressure
gradient) and fluid contacts, fluid
properties (for PVT analysis)
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LOGGING/WELLBORE
ENVIRONMENT

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Once a drillbit has penetrated through a formation, the local


environment has been altered from the conditions that existed
before drilling. The longer the hole remains open, the more
change to the environment occurs.
The actual drilling process involves removing material that is part
of the mechanical fabric of the system. The hole could not remain
open unless it was supported by a column of fluid which is about
as dense, or denser, than the equivalent pore fluid column.
However, in maintaining an open hole, where However, in
maintaining an open hole, where permeability exists some of the
fluid invades the formation.
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Drilling muds are designed to form a low permeability


membrane against the hole side. This is called the
filtercake.
In order to form this, there must be a spurt (SUDDEN)
fluid loss to the formation. This is followed by a much
slower continuous filtering of fluid (filtrate) over the
period of time the hole remains open.
The type of filtrate and filtercake is dependent on the
type of drilling fluid utilised.
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There are basically four types of drilling fluid that we can consider.
In each of these the filtrate is different:
Freshwater
muds
Saltwater
muds
Oil based muds
KCl or CaCl Polymer based muds
Freshwater systems are usually used when the formation water is
brackish fresh (SALTY LESS THAN SEA) and are not very common
these days, except in onshore drilling. The filtrate
is fresh water. 72
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Saltwater
systems are used in salty formation waters and the mud filtrate
may be saltier or less salty than the formation water. Because of
poor hole problems these became less popular in the 1970s.
However, because of their more environmentally friendly
properties
they have made a comeback since the 1990s.
KCl or CaCl Polymer based systems are really hypersaline salt
water systems. However,
there are some additional properties of the filter cake to take into
account. Well maintained systems have virtually zero permeability
filtercakes, resulting in less invasion. Both CaCl9/26/16
and KCl also act73as

Oilbased
systems carry their water, which may be as much as 40% of the
system, as an emulsion phase. In addition, they are often
hypersaline systems containing as much as
350,000 ppm CaCl in solution. The filtrate should be oil only. The
hyper salinity is used to dehydrate
the near wellbore by osmotic force. In order to maintain the
water in an emulsion they contain appreciable quantities of
surfactants. These can alter saturations and wettability in the
near wellbore. Because of their negative environmental impact,
alternatives are now being sought. These include biodegradable
base oils and the polymer systems outlined above. Note that
some waterbased
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drilling fluids also contain emulsified oil as a clay stabiliser. This

Mud Filtrate Invasion

Invaded
Zone
(Rxo)
Wellbore
Mud
(Rm)

Uninvaded
Zone
(Rt)

Mud Cake
(Rmc)

Uninvaded
Zone
(Rt)

Drilling fluid invasion is a process that


occurs in a well being drilled with higher
wellbore pressure (normally caused by
excessive mud weights) than
formation pressure. The liquid component
of the drilling fluid (known as the
mud filtrate) also called as spurt, continues
to "invade" the porous and permeable
formation until the solids present in the
mud, commonly bentonite, clog enough
pores to form a mud cake capable of
preventing further invasion

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COMMON TERMINOLOGY
Borehole
Rm : Borehole mud resistivity
Rmc : Mudcake resistivity
Invaded zone
Rmf : Mud filtrate resistivity
Rxo : Invaded zone (flushed zone) resistivity
Sxo : Invaded zone (flushed zone) water saturation
Uninvaded zone
Rw : Interstitial water resistivity
Rt : Uninvaded zone resistivity
Sw : Uninvaded zone water saturation

Fresh mud, salt water zone

Salty mud, Hydrocarbon zone

Resistivity profiles due to mud filtrate invasion:


Figure 1: Water bearing formation drilled with water-base mud
Figure 2: Oil bearing formation drilled with water-base mud
Figure 3: Water bearing formation drilled with oil-base mud
Figure 4: Oil bearing formation drilled with oil-base mud
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Radial Fluid and Resistivity Distribution


Rt

Rxo

Rt

Rx0
Resistivity

Resistivity

Rx0

Rxo

Rt

Water Based Muds


Qualitative Distribution of Resistivity (Rmf > Rw)

Rt