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# 11

Infinite Sequences
and Series

11.10

Taylor and Maclaurin
Series

Taylor and Maclaurin Series
We start by supposing that f is any function that can be
represented by a power series
f (x) = c0 + c1(x – a) + c2(x – a)2 + c3(x – a)3 + c4(x – a)4
+ ...| x – a | < R
Let’s try to determine what the coefficients cn must be in
terms of f.
To begin, notice that if we put x = a in Equation 1, then all
terms after the first one are 0 and we get
f (a) = c0

3

. |x–a|<R Again we put x = a in Equation 3. |x – a| < R and substitution of x = a in Equation 2 gives f  (a) = c1 Now we differentiate both sides of Equation 2 and obtain f (x) = 2c2 + 2  3c3(x – a) + 3  4c4(x – a)2 + . The result is f  (a) = 2c2 4 .Taylor and Maclaurin Series We can differentiate the series in Equation 1 term by term: f (x) = c1 + 2c2(x – a) + 3c3(x – a)2 + 4c4(x – a)3 + . . . .

Taylor and Maclaurin Series Let’s apply the procedure one more time.| x – a | < R and substitution of x = a in Equation 4 gives f ''' (a) = 2  3c3 = 3!c3 By now you can see the pattern.. we obtain f (n) (a) = 2  3  4  . Differentiation of the series in Equation 3 gives f ''' (x) = 2  3c3 + 2  3  4c4(x – a) + 3  4  5c5(x – a)2 + .. ncn = n!cn 5 . If we continue to differentiate and substitute x = a...

6 . we get This formula remains valid even for n = 0 if we adopt the conventions that 0! = 1 and f (0) = f.Taylor and Maclaurin Series Solving this equation for the nth coefficient cn. Thus we have proved the following theorem.

then it must be of the following form.Taylor and Maclaurin Series Substituting this formula for cn back into the series. The series in Equation 6 is called the Taylor series of the function f at a (or about a or centered at a). we see that if f has a power series expansion at a. 7 .

8 .Taylor and Maclaurin Series For the special case a = 0 the Taylor series becomes This case arises frequently enough that it is given the special name Maclaurin series.

Solution: If f (x) = ex. Therefore the Taylor series for f at 0 (that is. then f (n)(x) = ex. so f (n)(0) = e0 = 1 for all n. the Maclaurin series) is 9 .Example 1 Find the Maclaurin series of the function f (x) = ex and its radius of convergence.

Then so.Example 1 – Solution cont’d To find the radius of convergence we let an = xn/n!. the series converges for all x and the radius of convergence is R = . by the Ratio Test. 10 .

Taylor and Maclaurin Series The conclusion we can draw from Theorem 5 and Example 1 is that if ex has a power series expansion at 0. then So how can we determine whether ex does have a power series representation? 11 .

if f has derivatives of all orders. this means that f (x) is the limit of the sequence of partial sums. 12 . when is it true that As with any convergent series.Taylor and Maclaurin Series Let’s investigate the more general question: Under what circumstances is a function equal to the sum of its Taylor series? In other words.

the partial sums are Notice that Tn is a polynomial of degree n called the nth-degree Taylor polynomial of f at a.Taylor and Maclaurin Series In the case of the Taylor series. 13 .

Taylor and Maclaurin Series For instance. and 3 are 14 . for the exponential function f (x) = ex. 2. the result of Example 1 shows that the Taylor polynomials at 0 (or Maclaurin polynomials) with n = 1.

15 .Taylor and Maclaurin Series The graphs of the exponential function and these three Taylor polynomials are drawn in Figure 1. This suggests that ex is equal to the sum of its Taylor series. Tn (x) appears to approach ex in Figure 1. Figure 1 As n increases.

Taylor and Maclaurin Series In general. then it follows that 16 . If we can somehow show that limn  Rn(x) = 0. f (x) is the sum of its Taylor series if If we let Rn(x) = f (x) – Tn(x) so that f (x) = Tn(x) + Rn(x) then Rn(x) is called the remainder of the Taylor series.

In trying to show that limn  Rn(x) = 0 for a specific function f. 17 .Taylor and Maclaurin Series We have therefore proved the following. we usually use the following Theorem.

we assume that | f (x) |  M. we have f (x)  M. In particular. we have f (x) – f (a)  M (x – a) or f (x)  f (a) + M (x – a) 18 .Taylor and Maclaurin Series To see why this is true for n = 1. so for a  x  a + d we have An antiderivative of f  is f . so by Part 2 of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

Taylor and Maclaurin Series Thus But R1(x) = f (x) – T1(x) = f (x) – f (a) – f (a)(x – a). So 19 .

Taylor and Maclaurin Series A similar argument. shows that So Although we have assumed that x > a. 20 . using f (x)  –M. similar calculations show that this inequality is also true for x < a.

This is true because we know from Example 1 that the series  xn/n! converges for all x and so its nth term approaches 0. The result for any n is proved in a similar way by integrating n + 1 times. In applying Theorems 8 and 9 it is often helpful to make use of the following fact.Taylor and Maclaurin Series This proves Taylor’s Inequality for the case where n = 1. 21 .

then f (n + 1)(x) = ex for all n. If d is any positive number and | x |  d. Solution: If f (x) = ex. says that 22 . then | f (n + 1)(x) | = ex  ed. with a = 0 and M = ed.Example 2 Prove that ex is equal to the sum of its Maclaurin series. So Taylor’s Inequality.

from Equation 10. By Theorem 8.Example 2 – Solution cont’d Notice that the same constant M = ed works for every value of n. But. ex is equal to the sum of its Maclaurin series. we have It follows from the Squeeze Theorem that lim n  | Rn(x) | = 0 and therefore limn  Rn(x) = 0 for all values of x. 23 . that is.

Taylor and Maclaurin Series In particular. we obtain the following expression for the number e as a sum of an infinite series: 24 . if we put x = 1 in Equation 11.

(k – n + 1) 25 . . . . f(n) (x) = k(k – 1) .Example 8 Find the Maclaurin series for f (x) = (1 + x)k. where k is any real number. (k – n + 1)(1 + x)k – n f(n)(0) = k(k – 1) . . . Solution: Arranging our work in columns. . . we have f (x) = (1 + x)k f (0) = 1 f  (x) = k(1 + x)k – 1 f  (x) = k(k – 1)(1 + x)k – 2 f  (0) = k f  (0) = k(k – 1) f ''' (x) = k(k – 1)(k – 2)(1 + x)k – 3 f ''' (0) = k(k – 1)(k – 2) . . .

then the terms are eventually 0 and so the series is finite. For other values of k none of the terms is 0 and so we can try the Ratio Test. Notice that if k is a nonnegative integer.Example 8 – Solution cont’d Therefore the Maclaurin series of f (x) = (1 + x)k is This series is called the binomial series. 26 .

27 . then Thus. the binomial series converges if | x | < 1 and diverges if | x | > 1.Example 8 – Solution cont’d If its nth term is an. by the Ratio Test.

The following theorem states that (1 + x)k is equal to the sum of its Maclaurin series.Taylor and Maclaurin Series The traditional notation for the coefficients in the binomial series is and these numbers are called the binomial coefficients. 28 .

Taylor and Maclaurin Series It is possible to prove this by showing that the remainder term Rn(x) approaches 0. but that turns out to be quite difficult. 29 .

Taylor and Maclaurin Series Although the binomial series always converges when | x | < 1. 1. the question of whether or not it converges at the endpoints. Notice that if k is a positive integer and n > k. depends on the value of k. This means that the series terminates and reduces to the ordinary Binomial Theorem when k is a positive integer. 30 . It turns out that the series converges at 1 if –1 < k  0 and at both endpoints if k  0. so for n > k. then the expression for contains a factor (k – k).

Taylor and Maclaurin Series We collect in the following table. some important Maclaurin series that we have derived in this section and the preceding one. Important Maclaurin Series and their Radii of Convergence Table 1 31 . for future reference.

Multiplication and Division of Power Series 32 .

Solution: (a) Using the Maclaurin series for ex and sin x in Table 1. we have 33 .Example 13 Find the first three nonzero terms in the Maclaurin series for (a) ex sin x and (b) tan x.

collecting like terms just as for polynomials: 34 .Example 13 – Solution cont’d We multiply these expressions.

we have 35 .Example 13 – Solution cont’d Thus (b) Using the Maclaurin series in Table 1.

Example 13 – Solution cont’d We use a procedure like long division: Thus 36 .