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EE 394J-10

Distributed Generation Technologies

Fall 2012

Course Introduction
• Meetings: Mondays and Wednesdays from 2:00 to 3:30 PM in
ENS 145
• Professor: Alexis Kwasinski (ENS528,, Ph: 232-3442)
• Course Home Page:
• Office Hours: Mondays and Wednesdays (10:00 – 11:00) and
Mondays (3:30 – 4:30); or by appointment.

© Alexis Kwasinski, 2012

Course Introduction
• Fundamentals of power electronics and power systems or consent from the instructor.
• Familiarity with at least one computer simulation software.
• Knowledge on how to browse through professional publications.
Course Description:
• Graduate level course.
• Goal #1: To discuss topics related with distributed generation technologies.
• Goal #2: To prepare the students to conduct research or help them to improve their
existing research skills.
• This latter goal implies that students are expected to have a proactive approach to their
course work, which in some cases will require finding on their own proper ways to find
unknown solutions to a given problem.

© Alexis Kwasinski, 2012

• The lowest score for an assignment will not be considered to calculate the homework total score. 4 © Alexis Kwasinski. 90% – 86% = A-. 95% – 91% = A. Homework: • Homework will be assigned approximately every 2 weeks. 2012 . However.Course Introduction Grading: Homework: 25% Project preliminary evaluation: 15% Project report: 30% Project presentation: 20% Class participation: 10% Letter grades assignment: 100% – 96% = “A+”. 85% – 81% = B+. and so on. all assignments need to be submitted in order to obtain a grade for the homework.

Final phase. I may allow to do both the project and the final exam in groups of 2. • The project is divided in two phases: Preliminary phase. and problem formulation (1 to 2 pages long). Due date: Oct. Final Presentation: • Every student is expected to do a presentation discussing their project to the rest of the class as if it were a conference presentation of a paper. • The students need to identify some topic related with the application of distributed generation technologies. 17. • The format and dates of the presentations will be announced during the semester . Submission of references. Due date: Nov.Course Introduction Project: • The class includes a project that will require successful students to survey current literature. at most 10 pages long. 28. I will announce my decision within the first week of classes. application description. Submission of a short paper (the report). 2012 . single column. • The project consists of carrying out a short research project throughout the course. 5 © Alexis Kwasinski. Prospect for working in teams: • Depending on the course enrollment.

W. 2012 .History Competing technologies for electrification in 1880s: • Edison: • dc. • Short distribution loops – No transmission • Loads were incandescent lamps and possibly dc motors (traction). Pearl Street Station: 6 “Jumbo” 100 kW. R. 6 © Alexis Kwasinski. 110 V generators “Eyewitness to dc history” Lobenstein. • Relatively small power plants (e. C.g. • No voltage transformation. Sulzberger. Pearl Street Station).

000 kVA. Niagara Falls historic power plant: 38 x 65. Niagara Falls) • Voltage transformation. 3-phase generatods http://spiff.rit.g. 23 kV.html 7 © Alexis Kwasinski.History Competing technologies for electrification in 1880s: •Tesla: • ac • Large power plants (e. 2012 .edu/classes/phys213/lectures/niagara/niagara. • Transmission of electricity over long distances • Loads were incandescent lamps and induction motors.

• Many small power stations needed (distributed concept). • Suitable for incandescent lamps and traction motors only. 8 © Alexis Kwasinski. • Higher cost than centralized ac system. 2012 . • Not suitable for induction motor.History Edison’s distribution system characteristics: 1880 – 2000 perspective • Power can only be supplied to nearby loads (< 1mile). • Cannot be transformed into other voltages (lack of flexibility). • Used inefficient and complicated coal – steam actuated generators (as oppose to hydroelectric power used by ac centralized systems).

• Need to balance generation and demand • Lack of flexibility. • Centralized and passive architecture. • Extensive and very complex system. • Not reliable enough for some applications. • Complicated control.History Traditional technology: the electric grid: • Generation. transmission. and distribution. 9 © Alexis Kwasinski. • Stability issues. • Vulnerable. 2012 . • Relatively inefficient.

• Individual loads power ratings are much smaller than system’s capacity • Conventional grid “stiffness” make them lack flexibility. the necessary energy storage level needs to be too high to make it economically feasible. • Electric energy storage can be added to conventional grids but in order to make their effect noticeable at a system level. 2012 .History Conventional grids operation: • In order to keep frequency within a tight stable operating range generated power needs to be balanced at all time with consumed power. • Lack of flexibility is observed by difficulties in dealing with high penetration of renewable energy sources (with a variable power output). 10 © Alexis Kwasinski. • A century working around adding electric energy storage by making the grid stiff by: • Interconnecting many large power generation units (high inertia = mechanical energy storage).

• Can combine heat and power generation. • Many small power stations needed (distributed concept). • Can use renewable and alternative power sources. • Existing grid presents issues with dc loads (e. • Power electronics allows for voltages to be transformed (flexibility).g. • Can integrate energy storage. Edison’s system suitable for these loads. • Cost competitive with centralized ac system. reliable and secure than long power paths involving transmission lines and substations. 2012 . computers) or to operate induction motors at different speeds. 11 © Alexis Kwasinski..History Edison’s distribution system characteristics: 2000 – future perspective • Power supplied to nearby loads is more efficient.

llnl.php 12 © Alexis Kwasinski.Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Efficiency 103 1018 Joules Useful energy High polluting emissions https://eed. 2012 .gov/flow/02flow.

llnl.4 Exajoules “New” renewable sources 13 © Alexis Kwasinski.Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Efficiency 103. 2012 13 .

Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Reliability Traditional grid availability: Approximately 99.999% 14 © Alexis Kwasinski.9 % Availability required in critical applications: Approximately 99. 2012 . Electricity Delivery Methods: Reliability Large storms or significant events reveal the grid’s reliability weaknesses: • Centralized architecture and • Passive transmission and distribution.jpg © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 . • Very extensive network (long paths and many components). • Lack of diversity.cgi?page=items&ser=109668 http://www.gismonitor.php 15 http://www.

Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Reliability Example of lack of diversity 16 © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 .

2012 .Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Reliability Example of lack of diversity 17 © Alexis Kwasinski.

Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Reliability Although they are hidden. Hence. 18 © Alexis Kwasinski. power outages are not too uncommon. the same reliability weaknesses are prevalent throughout the grid. 2012 .

U.S.Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Security Long transmission lines are extremely easy targets for external attacks.” 19 © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 . DOE OEERE “20% of Wind Energy by 2030.

jpg 20 © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 .g.Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Cost •Traditional natural gas and coal power plants is not seen as a suitable solution as it used to be. and renewable sources (e. • None of these options are intended to be installed close to demand centers. http://www. • Future generation expansion capacity will very likely be done through nuclear power plants.nrel. more large and expensive transmission lines need to be built. wind farms and hydroelectric plants).

2012 . Power plants average age is > 30 years. • The grid user is a passive participant whether he/she likes it or not. • The grid is old: it has the same 1880s structure.Traditional grid: Operation and other issues • Centralized integration of renewable energy issue: generation profile unbalances. 21 © Alexis Kwasinski. • Complicated stability control. • The grid lacks operational flexibility because it is a passive network.

powered by local units (distributed generation). 22 © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 .Distributed Generation: Concept (a first approach) • Microgrids are independently controlled (small) electric networks.

e. 2012 23 .) • What is a microgrid? • Microgrids are considered to be locally confined and independently controlled electric power grids in which a distribution architecture integrates loads and distributed energy resources—i.Distributed Generation: Concept (newest DOE def. local distributed generators and energy storage devices—which allows the microgrid to operate connected or isolated to a main grid 23 © Alexis Kwasinski.

Söder. microgrids are electric networks utilizing DR to achieve independent control from a large widespread power grid. passive grid). 195-204.” Telephony Online. 2001 http://telephonyonline. April 2001] • DG “involves the technology of using small-scale power generation technologies located in close proximity to the load being served” [J.] • Thus. 1. • This key concept implies that the microgrid has its own power generation sources (active control vs. and L.Distributed Generation: Concept • Key concept for microgrids: independent control. vol. 24 © Alexis Kwasinski. • DG can be defined as “a subset of distributed resources (DR)” [T. issue 3. 195-204. G. issue 3. Oct. Andersson. April 2001] . 57. “The new distributed generation. and L. Andersson.” Electric Power Systems Research. Ackermann.” Electric Power Systems Research. 57. Ackermann. Söder. vol. DR includes both generators and energy storage technologies” [T. pp. 2012 24 . pp. “Distributed generation: A definition. “Distributed generation: A definition. • A microgrid may or may not be connected to the main Hall. • DR are “sources of electric power that are not directly connected to a bulk power transmission system. G.

• More efficient • More environmentally friendly • More flexible • Less vulnerable • More modular • Easier to control • Immune to issues occurring elsewhere • Capital investment can be scaled over time • Microgrids can be integrated into existing systems without having to interrupt the load. 25 © Alexis Kwasinski.Microgrids • Distributed Generation: Advantages With respect to the traditional grid. well designed microgrids are: • More reliable (with diverse power inputs). 2012 25 . • Microgrids allow for combined heat and power (CHP) generation.

2012 26 .Microgrids • Distributed Generation: Issues • Load following • Power vs Energy profile in energy storage • Stability • Cost • Architecture / design • Optimization • Autonomous control • Fault detection and mitigation • Cost • Grid interconnection 26 © Alexis Kwasinski.

Power electronics interfaces • dc-dc converters • inverters • Rectifiers 27 © Alexis Kwasinski.Distributed Generation: System Components Generation units = microsources ( aprox. • The main grid. 2012 . • Small wind generators • Fuel Cells • Microturbines Energy Storage (power profile) • Batteries • Ultracapacitors • Flywheels Loads • Electronic loads. • Plug-in hybrids. less than 100 kW) • PV Modules.

Microgrid Examples • Highly available power supply during disasters •Power electronic enabled micro-grids may be the solution that achieves reliable power during disasters (e. NTT’s micro-grid in Sendai. Japan) 28 © Alexis Kwasinski.g. 2012 .

JPG 29 © Alexis Kwasinski.618 kW diesel • 400 kW wind •(tieline to Tununak and Nightmute) Information from “Alaska Village Electric Cooperative” • Wind is used to supplement diesel generators (diesel is difficult and expensive to transport in Alaska • Toksook Bay •Current Population: 590 •# of Consumers: 175 •Incorporation Type: 2nd Class City •Total Generating Capacity (kw): 2. 2012 .018 •1.Microgrid Examples • Isolated microgrids for villages in Alaska.

2012 .org/2012/01/18/wind-power-in-alaska/ http://www.akenergyauthority.Microgrid Examples • Other examples in Alaska Selawik Kasigluk 30 © Alexis Kwasinski.alaskapublic.

Microgrids • Application range: • From a few kW to MW 31 © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 .

32 © Alexis Kwasinski. If the grid experience a power outage the load cannot be powered even when the sun is shinning bright on the sky. • Why are they not microgrids? Because they cannot operate isolated from the grid. 2012 .Microgrids • What is not a microgrid? • Residential conventional PV systems (grid-tied) are not microgrids but they are distributed generation systems.

2012 .Distributed Generation and Smart Grids • European concept of smart grids based on electric networks needs [http://www. efficient energy management and ‘level playing field’ competition and regulation • The US concepts rely more on advanced interactive communications and controls by overlaying a complex cyberinfrastructure over the existing grid.pdf]: • Flexible: fulfilling customers’ needs whilst responding to the changes and challenges ahead. particularly for renewable power sources and high efficiency local generation with zero or low carbon consistent with the demands of the digital age with resilience to hazards and uncertainties. •Reliable: assuring and improving security and quality of supply. • Economic: providing best value through innovation. DG is one related concept but not necessarily part of the US Smart Grid concept. • Accessible: granting connection access to all network users.smartgrids. 33 © Alexis Kwasinski.

Smart grids Smart grids definition: • Besides being the new buzz word is not a concept but rather many technologies. Smart grid focus: • Reliability. • Integration of environmentally friendly generation and loads. intelligent loads. limited intelligent loads and operation (e. demand response). limited advanced communications. 2012 .org/ 34 © Alexis Kwasinski. • Local smart grid project: Pecan Street Project http://pecanstreetproject. Concept evolution: • “Smart grid 1.0” or “Energy Internet”: Distributed generation and storage.0”: Smart meters. advanced controls and monitoring. • “Smart grid 2.g.

Smart Grids • A customer-centric view of a power grid includes microgrids as one of smart grids technologies. 2012 35 . 35 © Alexis Kwasinski.

K at INTELEC © Alexis Kwasinski. Distributed Generation units. and other technologies. wind generators. Dr. Microturbines. fly-wheels. Microturbines. 2012 . and other technologies. and other technologies. photovoltaic generators. K at NATO Energy Security Conference (W only) Energy Storage – batteries. microgrids: technical and historic perspective. wind generators. August 29 Wed. fly-wheels. Course description. wind generators. fuel cells. Dr. reciprocating engines. The electric grid vs.. photovoltaic generators. and other technologies. Energy Storage – batteries.Course Introduction Schedule: Wed. Distributed Generation units. The “Energy Internet. ultracapacitors. reciprocating engines. ultracapacitors. September 5 Week 2 September 10 Week 3 September 17 Week 4 September 24 Week 5 October 1 36 Introduction. and other technologies.” Distributed Generation units. fuel cells. photovoltaic generators. Microturbines. fuel cells. reciprocating engines.

K at ICRERA Grid interconnection. Economics. autonomous. Dr. advantages and disadvantages both for the grid and microgrids. Stability and protections.Course Introduction Schedule: Week 6 October 8 Week 7 October 15 Week 8 October 22 Week 9 October 29 Week 10 November 5 Week 11 November 12 Week 12 November 19 Week 13 November 26 Week 14 December 3 37 Power electronics interfaces: multiple and single input dc-dc converters. Presentations © Alexis Kwasinski. Reliability and availability. Power architectures: distributed and centralized. Operation. and centralized systems. Controls: distributed. Power electronics interfaces: ac-dc and dc-ac. (Thanksgiving week) Smart grids. 2012 . planning. Dc and ac distribution systems. Issues.