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EE 394J-10

Distributed Generation Technologies

Fall 2012

Course Introduction
• Meetings: Mondays and Wednesdays from 2:00 to 3:30 PM in
ENS 145
• Professor: Alexis Kwasinski (ENS528,
akwasins@mail.utexas.edu, Ph: 232-3442)
• Course Home Page:
http://users.ece.utexas.edu/~kwasinski/EE394J10DGFa12.html
• Office Hours: Mondays and Wednesdays (10:00 – 11:00) and
Mondays (3:30 – 4:30); or by appointment.
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© Alexis Kwasinski, 2012

Course Introduction
Prerequisites:
• Fundamentals of power electronics and power systems or consent from the instructor.
• Familiarity with at least one computer simulation software.
• Knowledge on how to browse through professional publications.
Course Description:
• Graduate level course.
• Goal #1: To discuss topics related with distributed generation technologies.
• Goal #2: To prepare the students to conduct research or help them to improve their
existing research skills.
• This latter goal implies that students are expected to have a proactive approach to their
course work, which in some cases will require finding on their own proper ways to find
unknown solutions to a given problem.
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© Alexis Kwasinski, 2012

• The lowest score for an assignment will not be considered to calculate the homework total score. 4 © Alexis Kwasinski. 90% – 86% = A-. 95% – 91% = A. Homework: • Homework will be assigned approximately every 2 weeks. 2012 . However.Course Introduction Grading: Homework: 25% Project preliminary evaluation: 15% Project report: 30% Project presentation: 20% Class participation: 10% Letter grades assignment: 100% – 96% = “A+”. 85% – 81% = B+. and so on. all assignments need to be submitted in order to obtain a grade for the homework.

Final phase. I may allow to do both the project and the final exam in groups of 2. • The project is divided in two phases: Preliminary phase. and problem formulation (1 to 2 pages long). Due date: Oct. Final Presentation: • Every student is expected to do a presentation discussing their project to the rest of the class as if it were a conference presentation of a paper. • The students need to identify some topic related with the application of distributed generation technologies. 17. • The format and dates of the presentations will be announced during the semester . Submission of references. Due date: Nov.Course Introduction Project: • The class includes a project that will require successful students to survey current literature. at most 10 pages long. 28. I will announce my decision within the first week of classes. application description. Submission of a short paper (the report). 2012 . single column. • The project consists of carrying out a short research project throughout the course. 5 © Alexis Kwasinski. Prospect for working in teams: • Depending on the course enrollment.

W. 2012 .History Competing technologies for electrification in 1880s: • Edison: • dc. • Short distribution loops – No transmission • Loads were incandescent lamps and possibly dc motors (traction). Pearl Street Station: 6 “Jumbo” 100 kW. R. 6 © Alexis Kwasinski. 110 V generators “Eyewitness to dc history” Lobenstein. • Relatively small power plants (e. C.g. • No voltage transformation. Sulzberger. Pearl Street Station).

000 kVA. Niagara Falls historic power plant: 38 x 65. Niagara Falls) • Voltage transformation. 3-phase generatods http://spiff.rit.g. 23 kV.html 7 © Alexis Kwasinski.History Competing technologies for electrification in 1880s: •Tesla: • ac • Large power plants (e. 2012 .edu/classes/phys213/lectures/niagara/niagara. • Transmission of electricity over long distances • Loads were incandescent lamps and induction motors.

• Many small power stations needed (distributed concept). • Suitable for incandescent lamps and traction motors only. 8 © Alexis Kwasinski. • Higher cost than centralized ac system. 2012 . • Not suitable for induction motor.History Edison’s distribution system characteristics: 1880 – 2000 perspective • Power can only be supplied to nearby loads (< 1mile). • Cannot be transformed into other voltages (lack of flexibility). • Used inefficient and complicated coal – steam actuated generators (as oppose to hydroelectric power used by ac centralized systems).

• Need to balance generation and demand • Lack of flexibility. • Centralized and passive architecture. • Extensive and very complex system. • Not reliable enough for some applications. • Complicated control.History Traditional technology: the electric grid: • Generation. transmission. and distribution. 9 © Alexis Kwasinski. • Stability issues. • Vulnerable. 2012 . • Relatively inefficient.

• Individual loads power ratings are much smaller than system’s capacity • Conventional grid “stiffness” make them lack flexibility. the necessary energy storage level needs to be too high to make it economically feasible. • Electric energy storage can be added to conventional grids but in order to make their effect noticeable at a system level. 2012 .History Conventional grids operation: • In order to keep frequency within a tight stable operating range generated power needs to be balanced at all time with consumed power. • Lack of flexibility is observed by difficulties in dealing with high penetration of renewable energy sources (with a variable power output). 10 © Alexis Kwasinski. • A century working around adding electric energy storage by making the grid stiff by: • Interconnecting many large power generation units (high inertia = mechanical energy storage).

• Can combine heat and power generation. • Many small power stations needed (distributed concept). • Can use renewable and alternative power sources. • Existing grid presents issues with dc loads (e. • Power electronics allows for voltages to be transformed (flexibility).g. • Can integrate energy storage. Edison’s system suitable for these loads. • Cost competitive with centralized ac system. reliable and secure than long power paths involving transmission lines and substations. 2012 . computers) or to operate induction motors at different speeds. 11 © Alexis Kwasinski..History Edison’s distribution system characteristics: 2000 – future perspective • Power supplied to nearby loads is more efficient.

llnl.php 12 © Alexis Kwasinski.Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Efficiency 103 1018 Joules Useful energy High polluting emissions https://eed. 2012 .gov/flow/02flow.

llnl.4 Exajoules “New” renewable sources https://flowcharts.gov/ 13 © Alexis Kwasinski.Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Efficiency 103. 2012 13 .

Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Reliability Traditional grid availability: Approximately 99.999% 14 © Alexis Kwasinski.9 % Availability required in critical applications: Approximately 99. 2012 .

doe.oe.com/news/newsletter/archive/092205.Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Reliability Large storms or significant events reveal the grid’s reliability weaknesses: • Centralized architecture and control.gov/docs/katrina/la_outage_9_3_0900. • Passive transmission and distribution.jpg © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 . • Very extensive network (long paths and many components). • Lack of diversity.cgi?page=items&ser=109668 http://www.gismonitor.php 15 http://www. http://www.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/index.netl.nnvl.

Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Reliability Example of lack of diversity 16 © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 .

2012 .Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Reliability Example of lack of diversity 17 © Alexis Kwasinski.

Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Reliability Although they are hidden. Hence. 18 © Alexis Kwasinski. power outages are not too uncommon. the same reliability weaknesses are prevalent throughout the grid. 2012 .

U.S.Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Security Long transmission lines are extremely easy targets for external attacks.” 19 © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 . DOE OEERE “20% of Wind Energy by 2030.

jpg 20 © Alexis Kwasinski. Hence.gov/wind/systemsintegration/images/home_usmap. 2012 .g.Traditional Electricity Delivery Methods: Cost •Traditional natural gas and coal power plants is not seen as a suitable solution as it used to be. and renewable sources (e. • None of these options are intended to be installed close to demand centers. http://www. • Future generation expansion capacity will very likely be done through nuclear power plants.nrel. more large and expensive transmission lines need to be built. wind farms and hydroelectric plants).

2012 . Power plants average age is > 30 years. • The grid user is a passive participant whether he/she likes it or not. • The grid is old: it has the same 1880s structure.Traditional grid: Operation and other issues • Centralized integration of renewable energy issue: generation profile unbalances. 21 © Alexis Kwasinski. • Complicated stability control. • The grid lacks operational flexibility because it is a passive network.

powered by local units (distributed generation). 22 © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 .Distributed Generation: Concept (a first approach) • Microgrids are independently controlled (small) electric networks.

e. 2012 23 .) • What is a microgrid? • Microgrids are considered to be locally confined and independently controlled electric power grids in which a distribution architecture integrates loads and distributed energy resources—i.Distributed Generation: Concept (newest DOE def. local distributed generators and energy storage devices—which allows the microgrid to operate connected or isolated to a main grid 23 © Alexis Kwasinski.

Söder. microgrids are electric networks utilizing DR to achieve independent control from a large widespread power grid. passive grid). 195-204.” Telephony Online. 2001 http://telephonyonline. April 2001] • DG “involves the technology of using small-scale power generation technologies located in close proximity to the load being served” [J.] • Thus. 1. • This key concept implies that the microgrid has its own power generation sources (active control vs. and L.Distributed Generation: Concept • Key concept for microgrids: independent control. vol. 24 © Alexis Kwasinski. • DG can be defined as “a subset of distributed resources (DR)” [T. issue 3. 195-204. G. issue 3. Oct. Andersson. April 2001] . 57. “The new distributed generation. and L. Andersson.” Electric Power Systems Research. Ackermann.” Electric Power Systems Research. 57. Ackermann. Söder. vol. DR includes both generators and energy storage technologies” [T. pp. 2012 24 . pp. “Distributed generation: A definition. “Distributed generation: A definition. • A microgrid may or may not be connected to the main grid.com/mag/telecom_new_distributed_generation/. Hall. • DR are “sources of electric power that are not directly connected to a bulk power transmission system. G.

• More efficient • More environmentally friendly • More flexible • Less vulnerable • More modular • Easier to control • Immune to issues occurring elsewhere • Capital investment can be scaled over time • Microgrids can be integrated into existing systems without having to interrupt the load. 25 © Alexis Kwasinski.Microgrids • Distributed Generation: Advantages With respect to the traditional grid. well designed microgrids are: • More reliable (with diverse power inputs). 2012 25 . • Microgrids allow for combined heat and power (CHP) generation.

2012 26 .Microgrids • Distributed Generation: Issues • Load following • Power vs Energy profile in energy storage • Stability • Cost • Architecture / design • Optimization • Autonomous control • Fault detection and mitigation • Cost • Grid interconnection 26 © Alexis Kwasinski.

Power electronics interfaces • dc-dc converters • inverters • Rectifiers 27 © Alexis Kwasinski.Distributed Generation: System Components Generation units = microsources ( aprox. • The main grid. 2012 . • Small wind generators • Fuel Cells • Microturbines Energy Storage (power profile) • Batteries • Ultracapacitors • Flywheels Loads • Electronic loads. • Plug-in hybrids. less than 100 kW) • PV Modules.

Microgrid Examples • Highly available power supply during disasters •Power electronic enabled micro-grids may be the solution that achieves reliable power during disasters (e. NTT’s micro-grid in Sendai. Japan) 28 © Alexis Kwasinski.g. 2012 .

JPG 29 © Alexis Kwasinski.618 kW diesel • 400 kW wind •(tieline to Tununak and Nightmute) Information from “Alaska Village Electric Cooperative” http://avec.net/images/communities/Toksook%20Wind%20Tower%20Bulk%20Fuel%20and%20Power%20Plant.securesites. • Wind is used to supplement diesel generators (diesel is difficult and expensive to transport in Alaska • Toksook Bay •Current Population: 590 •# of Consumers: 175 •Incorporation Type: 2nd Class City •Total Generating Capacity (kw): 2. 2012 .018 •1.Microgrid Examples • Isolated microgrids for villages in Alaska.

2012 .org/2012/01/18/wind-power-in-alaska/ http://www.akenergyauthority.Microgrid Examples • Other examples in Alaska Selawik Kasigluk http://www.org/programwindsystem.html 30 © Alexis Kwasinski.alaskapublic.

Microgrids • Application range: • From a few kW to MW 31 © Alexis Kwasinski. 2012 .

32 © Alexis Kwasinski. If the grid experience a power outage the load cannot be powered even when the sun is shinning bright on the sky. • Why are they not microgrids? Because they cannot operate isolated from the grid. 2012 .Microgrids • What is not a microgrid? • Residential conventional PV systems (grid-tied) are not microgrids but they are distributed generation systems.

2012 .Distributed Generation and Smart Grids • European concept of smart grids based on electric networks needs [http://www. efficient energy management and ‘level playing field’ competition and regulation • The US concepts rely more on advanced interactive communications and controls by overlaying a complex cyberinfrastructure over the existing grid.pdf]: • Flexible: fulfilling customers’ needs whilst responding to the changes and challenges ahead. particularly for renewable power sources and high efficiency local generation with zero or low carbon emissions.eu/documents/vision. consistent with the demands of the digital age with resilience to hazards and uncertainties. •Reliable: assuring and improving security and quality of supply. • Economic: providing best value through innovation. DG is one related concept but not necessarily part of the US Smart Grid concept. • Accessible: granting connection access to all network users.smartgrids. 33 © Alexis Kwasinski.

Smart grids Smart grids definition: • Besides being the new buzz word is not a concept but rather many technologies. Smart grid focus: • Reliability. • Integration of environmentally friendly generation and loads. intelligent loads. limited intelligent loads and operation (e. demand response). limited advanced communications. 2012 .org/ 34 © Alexis Kwasinski. • Local smart grid project: Pecan Street Project http://pecanstreetproject. Concept evolution: • “Smart grid 1.0” or “Energy Internet”: Distributed generation and storage.0”: Smart meters. advanced controls and monitoring. • “Smart grid 2.g.

Smart Grids • A customer-centric view of a power grid includes microgrids as one of smart grids technologies. 2012 35 . 35 © Alexis Kwasinski.

K at INTELEC © Alexis Kwasinski. Distributed Generation units. and other technologies. wind generators. Dr. Microturbines. fly-wheels. Microturbines. 2012 . and other technologies. and other technologies. photovoltaic generators. K at NATO Energy Security Conference (W only) Energy Storage – batteries. microgrids: technical and historic perspective. wind generators. August 29 Wed. fly-wheels. Course description. wind generators. fuel cells. Dr. reciprocating engines. The electric grid vs.. photovoltaic generators. and other technologies. Energy Storage – batteries.Course Introduction Schedule: Wed. Distributed Generation units. The “Energy Internet. ultracapacitors. reciprocating engines. ultracapacitors. September 5 Week 2 September 10 Week 3 September 17 Week 4 September 24 Week 5 October 1 36 Introduction. and other technologies.” Distributed Generation units. fuel cells. photovoltaic generators. Microturbines. fuel cells. reciprocating engines.

K at ICRERA Grid interconnection. Economics. autonomous. Dr. advantages and disadvantages both for the grid and microgrids. Stability and protections.Course Introduction Schedule: Week 6 October 8 Week 7 October 15 Week 8 October 22 Week 9 October 29 Week 10 November 5 Week 11 November 12 Week 12 November 19 Week 13 November 26 Week 14 December 3 37 Power electronics interfaces: multiple and single input dc-dc converters. Presentations © Alexis Kwasinski. Reliability and availability. Power architectures: distributed and centralized. Operation. and centralized systems. Controls: distributed. Power electronics interfaces: ac-dc and dc-ac. (Thanksgiving week) Smart grids. 2012 . planning. Dc and ac distribution systems. Issues.