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BASIC WELDING ENGINEERING

TRAINING PROGRAM FOR


WELDING INSPECTORS

WELDING
Welding

- proses penyambungan antara metal atau non-metal yang menghasilkan satu


bagian yang menyatu, dengan memanaskan material yang akan disambung sampai
pada suhu pengelasan tertentu, dengan atau tanpa penekanan, dan dengan atau tanpa
logam pengisi..

ARC WELDING

PROCESS ARC WELDING

SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW/STICK)


GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW/TIG)
METAL INERT GAS (MIG)
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW)
FLUX CORE ARC WELDING (FCAW)

Welding Power Sources


Drooping or Constant Current Characteristic
100

O.C.V. Striking voltage (typical) for


arc initiation

90
80

Required for: MMA, TIG, Plasma arc


and SAW > 1000 AMPS

Voltage

70
60
50
40

Large voltage variation, e.g. +


10v (due to changes in arc
length)

Normal Operating
Voltage Range

30

Small amperage change resulting


in virtually constant current e.g.
+ 5A.

20
10
20

40

60

80

100

120

Amperage

130

140

160

180

200

Flat or Constant Voltage Characteristic


Flat or Constant Voltage Characteristic Used With
MIG/MAG, ESW & SAW < 1000 amps
O.C.V. Arc Voltage
Virtually no Change.

33
32
31

Voltage

Small Voltage
Change.
Large Current Change

100

Amperage

200

300

SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING


(SMAW/STICK)
Prinsip

Dasar
proses pengelasan yang menggunakan
busur panas untuk mencairkan material
dasar dengan elektroda yang secara
simultan flux akan membentuk slag yang
berfungsi melindungi logam las dari
oksidasi.

SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING


(SMAW/STICK) or MANUAL WELDING

1) electrode holder
2) flux coated consumable electrode
3) welding arc
4) component being welded
5) fume extractor
6) current return lead

GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING


(GTAW/TIG)
Prinsip

Dasar
Proses pengelasan dimana busur api
dibentuk antara ujung tungsten dan
logam dasar dengan menggunakan inert
gas argon atau helium sebagai
pelindung dari oksidasi.

GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING


(GTAW/TIG)

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF


EACH PROCESS
PROCESS

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

SMAW

Easy to operate
Applicable for restrictive
access and weld position
Not required gas for
shielding

High wastage of
welding electrode
Relative low
deposite rate
Start stop problem

GTAW

Less wastage welding


consumable.
Low H2 welding process.

Low deposit rate.


Required high skill
welder.

FILLER METALS
(WELDING CONSUMABLES)
SMAW Electrodes
Core Wire
Electrode Coating

Core Wire

FILLER METALS
(WELDING CONSUMABLES)
CARBON STEEL ELECTRODES
8
E701
AWS

AWS American Welding Society

XX

Type of Coating
Welding Position
Strength of Electrode
Electrode

FILLER METALS
(WELDING CONSUMABLES)
AWS E 7016
Trade name : Kobe LB-U
E- Electrode.
70- 70,000 Pounds/sq in. Tensile Strength.
1- All position welding electrode.
6- Type of Flux Coating. (Low Hydrogen Potassium)

FILLER METALS
(WELDING CONSUMABLES)
AWS E 7018
Trade Name : Lincoln LH 70MR
E-Electrode.
70-

70,000 Pound /sq/in Tensile Strength.


1- All Position Electrode.

8- Type of flux (Low Hydrogen-iron powder)

FILLER METALS
(WELDING CONSUMABLES)

The three main electrode covering types


used in SMAW welding

Rutile - general purpose

Basic - low hydrogen

Cellulose - deep penetration/fusion

WELDING CODES, STANDARDS &


SPECIFICATIONS
AWS

D1.1 code use for structural


welding.
ASME IX code use for welding boiler,
pressure vessels and process/power
piping in accordance with related
ANSI/ASME codes.
API 1104 specification for pipelines and
riser piping.

GROUPING OF MATERIALS
IN WELDING
AWS D1.1:
Grouping material in AWS D1.1 is based
on the strength levels and welding
characteristics.
Material

grouping is listed in AWS D1.1


table 3.1.

GROUPING OF MATERIALS
IN WELDING
ASME SECTION IX:
Base metal is assigned with P. No.
grouping based on its nominal chemical
composition, weld ability and mechanical
properties.
List

of P-No could be found in Table


QW/QB 422 in ASME IX.

GROUPING OF MATERIALS
IN WELDING
API 1104:
Base metal is grouped in accordance
with its yield strength.
Grouping

could be found in Section


5.4.2.2 in API 1104 latest edition.

Material Classification
(Type & Grade)
AWS

Grouping
- Group I materials: A36, A53 Gr. B,
API 5L Gr. B
- Group II materials: API 2W Gr. 50/50T,
API 2H Gr. 50,
API 2Y Gr. 50,
ABS EH 36
- Group III materials: API 2W/2Y Gr. 60,
ASTM A572 Gr. 60
- Group IV materials: ASTM A709 Gr. HPS70W

Material Classification
(Type & Grade)
ASME

Grouping
- P1 materials: A-53 Gr. B, A106 Gr. B,
A333 Gr. 6, A350 LF2
- P8 materials: A312 TP 316(L),
A240 TP 304, A358 TP
304L
- P10H materials: A790 S31803,
A182 F51

Material Classification
(Type & Grade)
API

1104 Grouping

- Group I materials: API 5L Gr. B, API 5L X42


- Group II materials: API 5L X56, API 5L X60
- Group III materials: API 5L X65, API 5L X70
Note: Each grade (i.e. X65, X70) under group III shall require separate welding
procedure qualification.

HEAT TREATMENT
PREHEAT
PWHT

HEAT TREATMENT
PREHEATING

the application of heat


to the base metal immediately before the
welding or cutting operation to achieve a
specified minimum preheat temperature.
- To reduce shrinkage stresses in the
weld and adjacent base metal.
- Reduce the risk of hydrogen cracking.

HEAT TREATMENT
PREHEAT

HEAT TREATMENT
POSTWELD

HEAT TREATMENT
Stress Relief as it sometimes known, is
defined as heating to a suitable
temperature (for steel, below the critical);
holding long enough to reduce residual
stresses; and then cooling slowly
enough to minimize the development of
new residual stresses.

HEAT TREATMENT
POSTWELD

HEAT TREATMENT
PWHT shall be in accordance with
material grouping and thickness.
(Reference ASME B31.3; ASME VIII
Division 1 and AWS D1.1)

WELDING PROCEDURE
SPECIFICATION
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)
is a written qualified welding procedure
prepared to provide direction for making
production welds to code requirements.

WELDING PROCEDURE
SPECIFICATION
WPS contains the following variables:
Essential

Variables are those in which a


change, as described in the specific
variable, is considered to affect the
mechanical properties of the weldment,
and shall require requalification of the
WPS.

WELDING PROCEDURE
SPECIFICATION
WPS contains the following variables:
Supplementary

variables are required


for metals for which other Sections specify
notch-toughness tests are in addition to
essential variables for each welding
process.

WELDING PROCEDURE
SPECIFICATION
WPS contains the following variables:
Nonessential

variables are those in


which a change, as described in the
specific variables, may be made in the
WPS without requalification.

VARIABLES UNDER AWS


D1.1
ESSENTIAL, NON ESSENTIAL
AND SUPPLEMENTARY
Table 4.5 WPS
Table 4.12 Welder Performance

VARIABLE UNDER ASME IX


ESSENTIAL, NON ESSENTIAL
AND SUPPLEMENTARY
ARTICLE II WELDING PROCEDURE QUALIFICATIONS
ARTICLE III WELDING PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATIONS

VARIABLE UNDER API 1104


ESSENTIAL, NON ESSENTIAL
AND SUPPLEMENTARY
ARTICLE 5.4 WELDING PROCEDURE QUALIFICATIONS
ARTICLE 6.2.2 WELDER PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATIONS

P Number (ASME IX)


Base

metal is assigned P-number for the


purpose of reducing the number of
welding and brazing procedure required
List of P-No could be found in QW/QB
table in ASME IX.

WELDING PERFORMANCE
QUALIFICATIONS
PERFORMANCE

QUALIFICATION
TEST REQUIRED TO DETERMINE A
WELDERS, WELDING OPERATORS,
OR TACK WELDERS ABILITY TO
PRODUCE SOUND WELD
SIMILAR WITH WPS, THERE ARE
ALSO ESSENTIAL AND NON
ESSENTIAL VARIABLES.

WELDING PERFORMANCE
QUALIFICATIONS
EACH

PEOPLE WHO PASSED, WOULD


GET A CERTIFICATE.
CERTIFICATE WILL BE VALID FOR 6
MONTH
EVERY QUALIFICATION WILL BE
ASSESSED UNDER SPECIFIC
REQUIREMENT/CODE.

WELDING PERFORMANCE
QUALIFICATIONS
F NUMBER (ASME IX)
Fundamentally

is to determine the ability of


welders to make satisfactory welds with a
given filler metal.
The grouping is made to reduce the number
welding procedure and performance
qualification, where this can logically done.

PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION
RECORDS (PQR)

PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION
RECORDS (PQR)
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)
is a record of a welding data used to
weld a test coupon. The PQR is a record
of variables recorded during the
welding of the test coupons. It also
contains the test results of the tested
specimen.

MECHANICAL TESTING

CARRIED OUT TO ASSESS MECHANICAL


BEHAVIOUR OF MATERIAL WHETHER
MEETING OR NOT WITH REQUIREMENT IN
RELATED STANDARD.
TYPE OF MECHANICAL TESTING WE DO
MOST:
TENSILE TEST
BENDING TEST
HARDNESS TEST
IMPACT TEST

TENSILE TEST
A standard test piece that gripped at
either end by suitable apparatus in a
testing machine which slowly exerts an
axial pull so that the steel is stretched
until it breaks. The test provides
information on proof stress, yield point,
tensile strength, elongation and
reduction of area

TENSILE TEST

TENSILE TEST

TENSILE TEST

TENSILE TEST

TENSILE TEST

BEND TEST
Bending

tests are examination that


carried out to ensure a metal (weld
metal) has sufficient ductility to stand
bending without fracture or create defect
beyond codes requirement. Such as flaw
or opening crack

BEND TEST

BEND TEST

HARDENESS TEST

Hardness test of a material require to


determine its ability to resist indentation,
scratches, cutting or abrasion.
Hardness sometime could be an assessment
to the ductility of metal
Several type hardness testing is
Vickers
Rockwell
Brinell

HARDENESS TEST

HARDENESS TEST

IMPACT TEST
A test

designed to give information on


how a specimen of a known material will
respond to a suddenly applied stress,
e.g. shock. The test ascertains whether
the material is tough or brittle.
A notched test piece is normally
employed. The result is usually reported
as the energy in ft-lb. or Joule.

IMPACT TEST

IMPACT TEST

IMPACT TEST

IMPACT TEST

LATERAL EXPANSION
Lateral

expansion is a measure of the


ductility of the specimen.
When a ductile metal is broken during impact
test, the test piece deforms before breaking, a
pair of 'ears' being squeezed out on the side of
the compression face of the specimen is
measured

ASME B31.3 table 323.3.5

IMPACT TEST