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One particle central

force
Ø One particle moving under a
central force.
CENTRAL FORCE
• Derive from potential energy
function ,function only of
distance of particle from
origin.
• Spherically symmetry. V=v(r)
Ø The relation between force (F) and
potential (P).
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Ø Since V is the function only on r
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Ø Hence
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Ø The equation become
QM of a single particle to a
central force.
Ø The Hamiltonian operator
• where
Ø Transform these coordinate to
laplacian operator (square each
operators).
Ø This will result

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Ø Gives the operator for square of
magnitude of orbital angular
momentum of a single particle L^2.
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Ø The Hamiltonian becomes
Ø In classical mechanics a particle
subject to a central force has
angular momentum conserve.
Ø In quantum mechanics has definite
values for both energy and angular
momentum.
Ø The commutator of H and L must be
vanish.
Ø Set the simultaneous eigenfunction of
Ĥ, L^ and L^2 for a central-force
problem.
Ø Let the ψ denote of these common
eigentfunction.

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Ø So, the Schrödinger equation become
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Non interacting particles
Ø The particles exert no force on each
other and the classical-mechanical
energy is sum of energy of two
particles.
Ø
Ø The Hamiltonian operator is
Ø Where Ĥ only involve coordinate q
1 1

and Ĥ only involve coordinate q .


2 2

Ø The Schrödinger equation become


Ø
Ø The solution of separation variables,
we setting
Ø When the system is composed of two
no interacting particles, we can
reduce two-particle problem into
two separate one particle problem
by
Ø In general can solve any number of
non interacting particles. For n such
particles, we have
Ø For system of non interacting
particles, the energy is the sum of
the individual energies of each
particle and wave function is the
product of wave functions for each
particles.
Ø This result also apply to single
particle whose Hamiltonian is the
sum of separate term for each
coordinate
Ø So we can conclude that the wave
function and energies are
Reduction two particle to a
one particle problem
Ø Hydrogen has two particle, proton
and electron with coordinate
(x1,y1,z1) and (x2,y2,z2), the
potential energy of interacting
between these particles is a
function of only the relative
coordinate x2-x1, y2-y1,z2-z1 of
particles.
Ø In this case two particles problem
can be simplified to two separate
one particle problem.
Ø We can draw vector R like this
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Ø The kinetic energy is the sum of
kinetic energy of two particle
Ø Let M is total mass and m is reduce
mass
Ø Then
Ø the 1st term is the kinetic energy due
to translational motion of the whole
system of mass M. The quantity of
kinetic energy of mass M at the
centre of mass. note: translational
is motion at the same
displacement.
Ø The 2nd term is kinetic energy of
internal motion of two particles.
(vibration and rotation)
Ø The Hamiltonian function is
Ø The quantum-mechanical energy is
Ø So the translational energy E found
M

by solving Schrödinger equation


Ø And the Eµ can be found using the
Schrödinger equation
Ø
Two particle rigid rotor
Ø Two particle in the system that held
at fixed distance from each other
by a rigid massless rod.
Ø The kinetic energy is wholly
rotational energy.
Ø So the energy of the rotor is wholly
kinetic and V = 0.

Ø The Hamiltonian equation become
Ø

Where m and m are the masses of


• 1 2

two particles.
Hydrogen like atom
Ø Discussing atom or molecule,
considering isolate system
Ø Ignoring interatomic and
intermolecular interaction.
Ø Treat just as hydrogen atom- 1
electron and a nucleus of charge
Ze.
Ø Hydrogen Z=1
Ø Hydrogen like atom is the most
important system in QM.
Ø Schrödinger equation for atom with
more than one electron can’t be
obtained- interelectronic repulsion.
Ø So we assume no repulsion so
electron can be treated
independently.
Ø Atomic wave function will be
approximate by a product of one
electron function.
Ø A one-electron wave function is called
orbital.
Ø An orbital for an electron in an atom
is called atomic orbital.
Ø Atomic orbital's is use to construct
approximate wave function for
many-electron atoms or for wave
function for molecule.
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Degeneracy
Ø For bound state(transition state), the
energy depends only on n. but
wavefunction depend on all three
quantum number n, l, and m.
• n = 1, 2, 3, …..
• l = 0, 1, 2, 3, …,n – 1
• m = -l, -1, +1…0…l – 1 , l
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Ø Degeneracy - when different value of
l or m but have same value of n and
have the same energy. Except for n
= 1.
Ø For each value of l, the value of m is
2l+1.
Ø The degree of degeneracy of bound
state level of hydrogen like atom for
discreet level is found n square.
Ø For continuum levels for a given
energy there is no restriction on the
maximum value of l hence these
levels are infinity-fold degenerate.
(no discreet).
Ø The bound energy of hydrogen like
atom is discrete.
Ø The change in n are allowed so the
wave number of hydrogen spectral
lines are
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