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Critical Thinking

Basic Concepts
by
Dr. Maryanne Baudo DNP, NP-C, MSN,
RN

Objectives
Identify characteristics of critical thinkers
Describe types of nursing knowledge
Describe the 4 concepts in Full-Spectrum Nursing
Identify and describe the levels of critical thinking in nursing
Describe the components of the Critical Thinking Model
Identify the thinking process in critical thinking models

A nurses role is to assist individuals,


sick or well in the performance of activities,
contributing to health and its recovery or to a peaceful death
In order to do this a nurse must think critically
In order to problem solve and find the best
solution to a clients need, a nurse must think critically-Think
of several interventions can use with client
Critical thinking is a process that challenges
an individual to interpret and
evaluate information to derive judgments
Nursing involves thinking, doing , and caring

Critical Thinkers:
Consider issues before forming an opinion
Believe in their ability to think things through and make
decisions
Apply knowledge and principles to Critical thinkers:
specific situations
Think for themselves and are not easily manipulated
Are aware of the limits of their knowledge
Have an attitude of inquiry
Are non-judgmental, flexible, and honest

Critical Thinking
Is a combination of reasoned thinking,
openness to alternatives, an ability to reflect,
and a desire to seek truth

Types of Nursing Knowledge


Theoretical knowledge- information, facts, principles, and
evidenced-based theories
Practical knowledge- processes and procedures, know what to
do and how to do
Self-knowledge- know own beliefs, values, cultural and
religious biases
Ethical knowledge- moral principles and processes to make
decisions

Full- Spectrum Nursing


Full-Spectrum Nursing has 4 Concepts:
Thinking
Critical thinking
Theoretical knowledge
Doing
Practical knowledge
Nursing process
Caring
Self-knowledge
Ethical knowledge
Patient Situation
Patient data
Patient context

Complex Thinking Processes


Problem-Solving: Identify a problem and find
reasonable solutions
Decision-Making: Choosing the best action to
resolve the problem
Clinical Reasoning: Logical thinking, reflection, and
creative thinking about care of patient

Ways to Facilitate Critical Thinking Skills


Reflection purposefully thinking back or recalling a situation
used to gain insight into the meaning of a situation
also used for self-evaluation
Language must be clear and precise and able to
communicate- need to frame thoughts so focus is clear
Intuition used to begin an analytical process that will support
the sense of change in a situation- use intuition and then
begin assessment- use as a red flag

Levels of Critical Thinking in Nursing


Basic- the learner trusts that experts have the right answers
for every problem- this is an early step in developing
reasoning abilities- students asks for help with a
procedure, follow a procedure step by step,
Complex- a person begins to detach from authorities and
analyze and examine alternatives more
independently. Each solution has benefits and risks that the
nurse weighs before making a final decision- discussing
alternative pain management techniques
Commitment- nurse anticipates the need to make choices
without assistance from others and then assumes
accountability for them

Factors Influencing Critical Thinking Ability


Moral development- what is right, what is fair
Age- older people are more likely to be critical thinkers.

They have more opportunities to practice


reasoning
Dislikes, prejudices, and biases hinder critical thinking
Self-confidence- if not confident, spends too much time

worrying about failure

Factors Influencing Critical Thinking Ability


Effective communication- must be able to understand
others and be understood in order to get the facts
Past experience- experienced nurses are usually better
able to think because they have previous job-specific and
problem solving knowledge
Effective writing skills

Critical Thinking Model- 5 components


Specific Knowledge Base- varies from education
programs and length of education
Experience Clinical experience provides the laboratory for testing
nursing knowledge
Nurse needs to practice in clinical settings in order to
develop critical thinking

Critical Thinking Model- 5 components


Critical Thinking CompetencesAre the cognitive processes a nurse uses to make nursing judgments
Specific critical thinking competencies in the clinical situation include

Using Scientific Method- identifies problem to be investigated


Problem Solving- gathers info and uses it to find solutions
Decision Making- choose a course of action
Diagnostic Reasoning and Inferences- look at evidence and make a
diagnosis
Clinical Decision Making- goals
Nursing Process- purpose is to diagnose and treat human
responses

Critical Thinking Model- 5 components

Attitudes Confidence
Responsibility and Accountability
Thinking independently- look for rationales and logical
answers
Risk taking- trying different approaches to solve problems
Humility- know ones limitations
Integrity- recognizes conflicts of interest
Discipline
Perseverance
Creativity- look for different treatment options
Curiosity
Fairness- listening to both sides of the story

Critical Thinking Model- 5 components

Standards
Intellectual
Approaches assessment logically and consistently
Prioritizes care using scientific and practiced based criteria for
making clinical judgments
Uses the nursing Process
Professional
Refers to sound ethical criteria
Insures the highest level of quality nursing care

Critical Thinking Model


Thinking Process
Contextual awareness: Looking at the total situation
Inquiry: Applying the standards of good resoning
Considering Alternatives: Explore and use creative thinking
Analyzing Assumptions: Use all resources related to the
situation
Reflection: What is rationale for decision