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Facilitated by: Debbie E. Bandahala

**Meaning of Solid Geometry
**

• Solid geometry is concerned with three-dimensional shapes. • Examples of three-dimensional shapes are 1.cubes, 2.rectangular solids 3. prisms, 4. cylinders, 5. spheres, 6. cones and 7. pyramids

Solid Figures

Cube Sphere

Prism Pyramid

Pyramid Cylinder

rectangular solid

Cone

VOLUMES

What Is Volume ?

The volume of a solid is the amount of

space inside the solid. Consider the cylinder below:

If we were to fill the cylinder with water the volume would be the amount of water the cylinder could hold:

VOLUME is the amount of space that matter occupies

All matter has volume because ALL matter “takes up space”.

**To find the VOLUME of a RECTANGULAR SOLID…
**

H L W

1) Measure the of the object. 2)

Length, Width, and Height

Multiply all 3 numbers.

L x W x H = Volume

Measuring Volume.

Volume is measured in cubic centimetres (also called centimetre cubed).

Here is a cubic centimetre 1cm 1cm

It is a cube which measures 1cm in all 1cm directions.

We will now see how to calculate the volume of various shapes.

**Meaning of the Cube
**

• A CUBE is a solid figure with six congruent square faces

Volume of Cube

Examples

A box 4 in. wide, 4 in. high, and 4 in. long, uses 64 in.3 of space.

Formula:

- The equation to find the volume of a cube is length by width by height. - The volume of any shape is the amount of space the object uses. - Volume of the Cube - Vcube = y3, where y is the side of the cube

Solution:

Solve the volume of a cube that has the following qualities : 4cm 4cm

Given: Width =4 cm. Length = 4 cm. Height = 4 cm.

4cm

s

Solution:

V = 64 cm3

**What is the VOLUME of these RECTANGULAR SOLIDS?
**

625cm3 80in3

72cm

3

512cm3 8cm

8cm

8cm

Volume of Parallelopiped/rectangular solid

c b a Area of base (square) = a x b Height of cube = c Volume of cube = Area of base x height = (a x b) x c

b

**Volumes Of rectangular solid
**

Look at the cuboid below: 4cm

3cm 10cm We must first calculate the area of the base of the paralellepiped The base is a rectangle measuring 10cm by 3cm: 10cm 3cm

10cm 3cm Area of a rectangle = length x breadth Area = 10 x 3 Area = 30cm2 We now know we can place 30 centimetre squares on the base of the cuboid. But we can also place 30 cubic centimetres on the base: 4cm

3cm 10cm

4cm

10cm

3cm

We have now got to find how many layers of 1cm cubes we can place in the rectangular solid. We can fit in 4 layers. Volume = 30 x 4 Volume = 120cm3 That means that we can place 120 of our cubes measuring a centimetre in all directions inside the rectangular solid.

4cm

3cm 10cm We have found that the volume of the parallelepiped is given by: Volume = 10 x 3 x 4 = 120cm3 This gives us our formula for the volume of a parallelepiped Volume = Length x Breadth x Height V=LBH for short.

**What is the volume of each of the ff. Figures below ?
**

Calculate the volumes of the rectangular solids below: (2) (1) 7cm 5 cm 14cm 490cm3 3.4cm 39.3cm3 3.2m 2.7m 8.9 m 76.9 m3 3.4cm 3.4cm

(3)

Pyramid

• A pyramid is a solid with a polygon base and connected by triangular faces to its vertex. • A pyramid is a regular pyramid if its base is a regular polygon and the triangular faces are all congruent isosceles triangles.

Figure Illustrations

Formula in finding the volume

Square-Based Pyramid

Rectangular – based Pyramid

Formula in finding the volume

Formula in finding the volume

**How do you solve the volume of a pyramid? • Triangular Pyramid:
**

– Identify the length and width of the base. Write the measurements down. – Calculate the area of the base. Multiply the length by the width, then multiply by one half (or divide by 2). This is the area. Write the answer down. – Multiply the area of the base by the height of the pyramid. – Multiply your answer by one third, or divide by 3. This will give you the volume

Square Pyramid:

Identify the length and width of the base. Write your measurements down. Calculate the area of the base. This is done by multiplying the width by the height. Write the answer down. Multiply the area of the base by the height. Write this answer down, too. Multiply the previous answer by one third, or divide by 3. This will give you the final answer.

Formula

Triangula r Pyramid

Volume of a Pyramid

• The volume, V, of a pyramid in cubic units is given by

• where A is the area of the base and h is the height of the pyramid.

Example No. 1

• A pyramid has a square base of side 4 cm and a height of 9 cm. Find its volume. • Solution:

Figure

Example No. 2

• Find the volume of the following triangular pyramid, rounding your answer to two decimal places. Given: Area of Triangle = ½ bh b = 19 h= 17 H = 23

Solution

• Find the volume of a rectangular-based pyramid whose base is 8 cm by 6 cm and height is 5 cm. Given: h = 5cm w = 6cm l= 8cm

Example No. 3

Solution

**The Volume Of A Cylinder.
**

Consider the cylinder below: It has a height of 6cm . What is the size of the radius ? 2cm Volume = cross section x height What shape is the cross section? Circle Calculate the area of the circle: A= ∏r2 A = 3.14 x 2 x 2 A = 12.56 cm2 Calculate the volume: V = ∏ r 2x h V = 12.56 x 6 V = 75.36 cm3

6cm

4cm The formula for the volume of a cylinder is: V = ∏ r 2h r = radius h = height.

Outer Curved Surface area of cylinder

Click to animate

r

r

h

Circumference of circle = 2 π r

Formation of Cylinder by bangles It is the area covered by the outer surface of a cylinder. Circumference of circle = 2 π r

Activity -: Keep bangles of same radius one over another. It will form a cylinder.

Area covered by cylinder = Surface area of of cylinder = (2

Total Surface area of a solid cylinder

circular surfaces

Curved surface

= Area of curved surface area of two circular surfaces + =(2 π r) x( h) + 2 π r2 = 2 π r( h+ r)

Other method of Finding Surface area of cylinder with the help of paper r

h

h

2πr Surface area of cylinder = Area of rectangle= 2 πrh

Volume of cylinder

r h

Volume of cylinder = Area of base x vertical height = π r2 xh

Definition of Prism • A solid figure whose bases are congruent, parallel polygons and whose other faces are parallelograms.

Prisms

- are three-dimensional objects having end faces that are: a) polygons; b) parallel to each other; and c) have the same shape and size.

Examples of Prisms

Prisms are named according to the shape of their base (or cross-section).

Pentagonal Prism

Volume of a Prism

Example 1

If the rectangular box were filled with 1 cm cubes, there would be:

**The Volume Of A Triangular Prism.
**

Consider the triangular prism below: Volume = Cross Section x Height What shape is the cross section ? Triangle. Calculate the area of the triangle: A = ½ x base x height A = 0.5 x 5 x 5 A = 12.5cm2 Calculate the volume: Volume = Cross Section x Length V = 12.5 x 8 V = 100 cm3

5cm 8cm 5cm The formula for the volume of a triangular prism is : V=½bhl B= base h = height l = length

**What Goes In The Box ? 2
**

Calculate the volume of the shapes below: (1) 14cm (2) 4m 5m 3m 30m3

2813.4cm3 16cm (3) 8m 6cm 12cm

288cm3

Volume Of A Cone.

Consider the cylinder and cone shown below: D D The diameter (D) of the top of the cone and the cylinder are equal. H H The height (H) of the cone and the cylinder are equal. If you filled the cone with water and emptied it into the cylinder, how many times would you have to fill the cone to completely fill the cylinder to the top ? 3 times. This shows that the cylinder has three times the volume of a cone with the same height and radius.

Cone

l=

Slan

ight t he

h Bas e

r

Volume of a Cone

Click to See the experiment

r

h Here the vertical height and radius of cylinder & cone are same.

h r

3( volume of cone) = volume of cylinder 3( V ) = π r2h V = 1/3 π r2h

if both cylinder and cone have same height and radius then volume of a cylinder is three times the volume of a cone ,

Volume = 3V

Volume =V

Mr. Mohan has only a little jar of juice he wants to distribute it to his three friends. This time he choose the cone shaped glass so that quantity of juice seem to appreciable.

Surface area of cone

l

l

2π r

l

Area of a circle having sector (circumference) 2π l2π π l 2 = r Area of circle having circumference 1 = π l 2/ 2 π l

The experiment on the previous slide allows us to work out the formula for the volume of a cone: The formula for the volume of a cylinder is : V = ∏ r 2 h We have seen that the volume of a cylinder is three times more than that of a cone with the same diameter and height . The formula for the volume of a cone is: r

V= 1 π r 2h 3

h

r = radius h = height

Calculate the volume of the cones below: (1) 6m (2) 18m

9m

1 V = π r 2h 3 1 π r 2h 3

13m

V=

1 V = × 3.14 × 6 × 6 × 9 3

V=

1 × 3.14 × 9 × 9 × 13 3

3

V = 339.12m 3

V = 1102.14m

Comparison of Area and volume of different geometrical figures

Surface area

6a2

2π rh

πrl

4 π r2

Volume

a3

π r2h

1/3π r2h

4/3 π r3

**Area and volume of different geometrical figures r r
**

r Surface area

r

6r2 = 2 π r2

(a o t) bu

2π r2

2π r2

l=2 r

r/√ 2

2 π r2

Volume

r3

3.14 r3

0.57π r3

0.47π r3

**Total surface Area and volume of different geometrical figures and nature r r
**

1.44r Total Surface area r

2√2r

r l=3 r

4π r2

4π r2

4π r2

4 π r2

Volume

2.99r3

3.14 r3

2.95 r3

4.18 r3

So for a given total surface area the volume of sphere is maximum. Generally most of the fruits in the nature are spherical in nature because it enables them to occupy less space

Think :- Which shape (cone or cylindrical) is better for collecting resin from the tree

Click the

r

r

V= π r2 (3r)

3r V= 3 π r3

L n b tH yinw h o g u eav eig t

V= 1/3π r (3r)

2

V= π r3

L n b tL h inw h o g u ig t eig t

Small niddle will require to stick it in the tree,so little harm in tree

Long niddle will require to stick it in the tree,so much harm in tree

Bottle Coned shape Cylindrical shape

Sphere: A figure with a curved surface in which all points on the surface are equal distance from the center.This is an example of the sphere.

C

Radius

Volume of a Sphere

Using relational solids and pouring material we noted that the volume of a cone is the same as the volume of a hemisphere (with corresponding dimensions) Using “math language” Volume (cone) = ½ Volume

(sphere)

Therefore

(sphere)

**2(Volume (cone)) = Volume
**

+

OR

=

Volume of a Sphere

Using relational solids and pouring material we noted that the volume of a cone is the same as the volume of a hemisphere (with corresponding dimensions) Using “math language” Volume (cone) = ½ Volume (sphere) Therefore: 2(Volume (cone)) = Volume (sphere)

OR

+

=

Volume of a Sphere

We already know the formula for the volume of a cone.

Volum e = cone

OR

Volum e cylinder 3

= ÷3

Volume of a Sphere

AND we know the formula for the volume of a cylinder

Volume

cylinder

**= ( Area of Base ) X (Height )
**

Height

BASE

Volume of a Sphere

SUMMARIZING: Volume (cylinder) = (Area Base) (height) Volume (cone) = Volume (cylinder) /3 = ÷3

Volume (cone) = (Area Base) (height)/3 AND 2(Volume (cone)) = Volume (sphere) 2X

=

Volume of a Sphere

2(Volume (cone)) = Volume (sphere) 2X

=

**2( Area of Base) (height) /3= Volume (sphere) 2( π r)(h)/3= Volume (sphere) 2
**

BUT h = 2r

h

r r

2(π r )(2r)/3 = Volume(sphere)

2

4(π r3)/3 = Volume(sphere)

4π r 3

3

Volume of a Sphere

4 π r 3 3

**4π r Volume sphere = 3
**

4 π r 3 3 4 π r 3 3

3

If we make a cone having radius and height equal to the radius of sphere. Then a water filled cone can fill the sphere in 4 times.

r

r

r

V=1/3 πr2h If h = r then V=1/3 πr3 V1 = 4V = 4(1/3 πr3) = 4/3 πr3 V1

Volume of a Sphere

Click to See the experiment

Here the vertical height and radius of cone are same as radius of sphere.

h= r

r

r 4( volume of cone) = volume of Sphere 4( 1/3πr2h ) = 4( 1/3πr3 ) = V V = 4/3 π r3

**Summary Of Volume Formula.
**

r h b l V=lbh V=∏r2 h h l V=½bhl

V= 1 π r 2h 3

h

r

h b

**You can NOT use L x W x H to find the VOLUME of an IRREGULAR SOLID!!!
**

An IRREGULAR SOLID is any

**NOT boxshaped Can you think of some IRREGULAR SOLIDS?
**

solid that is

Name four things that you think are IRREGULAR SOLIDS:

To find the VOLUME of an IRREGULAR SOLID, you CAN use a GRADUATED CYLINDER! 1) Measure out some water into a GRADUATED CYLINDER. 2) Write down how much water you are starting with.

5) SUBTRACT to find the volume of the object.

3) Place the object into the water in the cylinder. 4) Write down the NEW level of the water in the cylinder

Shukran!

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