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UNIT – 1 BASIC CONCEPTS OF MEASUREMENTS

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General

Syllabus

concept

Generalized

measurement system-Units and standards-

measuring

readability,

instruments-

sensitivity,

range

of

accuracy, precision-

static and dynamic response repeatability-

systematic

and

random

errors-correction,

calibration, interchangeability

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Measurement

Procedure in which an unknown quantity is compared to a known standard, using an accepted and consistent system of units

The measurement may involve a simple linear rule to scale the length of a part or it may require a sophisticated measurement of force versus deflection during a tension test

Measurement provides a numerical value of the quantity of interest, within certain limits of accuracy and precision

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Key Words in Metrology

CALIBRATION – Comparison METROLOGY – Science of Measurement

TRACEABILITY Comparisons

Unbroken

Chain

of

UNCERTAINTITY – Error in Measurement ACCREDITATION – Third Party Ascertain

CALIBRATION

INTERVAL

Remains Reliable

Equipment

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Introduction to Metrology

Introduction to Metrology METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS/ FLORENCE/ 2016-2017/ UNIT 1 5

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Need of Measurement

Establish standard Interchange ability Customer Satisfaction Validate the design

Physical parameter into meaningful number

True dimension Evaluate the Performance

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Methods of Measurement

Direct method Indirect method Comparative method Coincidence method Contact method Deflection method Complementary method

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Direct method

Measurements are directly obtained

Ex: Vernier Caliper, Scales

Direct method • Measurements are directly obtained – Ex: Vernier Caliper, Scales METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS/ FLORENCE/

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Indirect method

Obtained by measuring other quantities

Ex : Weight

= Length x Breadth x

Indirect method • Obtained by measuring other quantities – Ex : Weight = Length x Breadth

Height x Density

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Comparative Method

It’s compared with other known value

Ex: Comparators

Comparative Method • It’s compared with other known value – Ex: Comparators METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS/ FLORENCE/

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Coincidence method

Measurements coincide with certain lines and signals

Fundamental method

Measuring a quantity directly in related with the definition of that quantity

Contact method

Coincidence method • Measurements coincide with certain lines and signals Fundamental method • Measuring a quantity

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Sensor/Measuring tip touch the surface area

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Complementary method

The value of quantity to be measured is combined with known value of the same quantity

Ex:Volume determination by liquid displacement

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Deflection method

The value to be measured is directly indicated by a deflection of pointer

Ex: Pressure Measurement

Deflection method • The value to be measured is directly indicated by a deflection of pointer

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GENERALIZED MEASURING SYSTEM

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Common elements of system

Primary sensing element Variable conversion element Variable manipulation element Data transmission element Data processing element Data presentation element

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Primary sensing element

 

Temperature

Primary sensing element Temperature Variable conversion element Variable manipulation element Data transmission element Data processing element

Variable conversion element

Variable manipulation element

Variable manipulation element

Variable manipulation element

Data transmission element

   
Primary sensing element Temperature Variable conversion element Variable manipulation element Data transmission element Data processing element
 

Data processing

 

element

Primary sensing element Temperature Variable conversion element Variable manipulation element Data transmission element Data processing element
Observer
Observer

Data presentation element

Primary sensing element Temperature Variable conversion element Variable manipulation element Data transmission element Data processing element

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Units and standards

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SI: fundamental Units

Physical Quantity

Unit Name

Symbol

length

meter

m

mass

kilogram

kg

time

second

s

electric current

ampere

A

temperature

Kelvin

K

amount of substance

mole

mol

luminous intensity

candela

cd

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SI: Derived Units

Physical Quantity

Unit Name

Symbol

area

square meter

m

2

volume

cubic meter

m

3

speed

meter per second

m/s

 

acceleration

meter per second squared

m/s 2

 

weight, force

newton

N

pressure

pascal

Pa

energy, work

joule

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Supplementary units

Physical

Unit Name

Symbol

Quantity

Plane

   

angle

Radian

rad

Solid

   

angle

Steradian

sr

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Standards

International standards

Primary standards

Secondary standards

Working standards

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International

International Organization of Legal Metrology, Paris

International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sevres, France

India

National Physical Laboratory Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg New Delhi - 110012 India Phone: 91-11-45609212 Fax: 91-11-45609310 Email: root@nplindia.org or root@nplindia.ernet.in

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Measuring Instruments

Deflection and null type instruments Analog and digital instruments Active and passive instruments Automatic and manually operated instruments Contacting and non contacting instruments Absolute and secondary instruments Intelligent instruments.

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DEFLECTION AND NULL TYPE

Physical effect generated by the measuring quantity

Equivalent opposing effect to nullify the physical effect caused by the quantity

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ANALOG AND DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS

Physical variables of interest in the form of continuous or stepless variations

Physical variables are represented by digital quantities

ANALOG AND DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS • Physical variables of interest in the form of continuous or stepless
ANALOG AND DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS • Physical variables of interest in the form of continuous or stepless

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ACTIVE AND PASSIVE INSTRUMENTS

Instruments are those that require some source of auxiliary power

The energy requirements of the instruments are met entirely from the input signal

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE INSTRUMENTS • Instruments are those that require some source of auxiliary power •

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Automatic and manually operated

Manually operated – requires the service of human operator

Automated – doesn't requires human operator

Automatic and manually operated • Manually operated – requires the service of human operator • Automated
Automatic and manually operated • Manually operated – requires the service of human operator • Automated

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Contacting And Non Contacting Instruments

A contacting with measuring medium

Measure the desired input even though they are not in close contact with the measuring medium

Contacting And Non Contacting Instruments • A contacting with measuring medium • Measure the desired input
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Absolute and Secondary Instruments

These instruments give the value of the electrical quantity in terms of absolute quantities

Deflection of the instruments can read directly

Absolute and Secondary Instruments • These instruments give the value of the electrical quantity in terms

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Absolute and Secondary Instruments • These instruments give the value of the electrical quantity in terms

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Intelligent instruments

Microprocessors are incorporated with measuring instruments

Intelligent instruments • Microprocessors are incorporated with measuring instruments METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS/ FLORENCE/ 2016-2017/ UNIT 1

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Characteristics of Measuring Instrument

Sensitivity

Readability

Range of accuracy

Precision

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Definition

Sensitivity- Sensitivity is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of response (output signal) to the magnitude of the quantity being measured (input signal)

Readability- Readability is defined as the closeness with which the scale of the analog instrument can be read

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Definition

Range

of

accuracy-

Accuracy

of

a

measuring system is defined

as

the

closeness of the instrument output to the true value of the measured quantity

Precision- Precision is defined as the ability of the instrument to reproduce a certain set of readings within a given accuracy

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Sensitivity

If the calibration curve is liner, as shown, the sensitivity of the instrument is the slope of the calibration curve.

If the calibration curve is not linear as shown, then the sensitivity varies with the input.

Sensitivity • • If the calibration curve is liner, as shown, the sensitivity of the instrument

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Sensitivity

This is the relationship between a change in the output reading for a given change of the input. (This relationship may be linear or non-linear.)

Sensitivity is often known as scale factor or instrument magnification and an instrument with a large sensitivity (scale factor) will indicate a large movement of the indicator for a small input change.

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Force, F

Load Cell
Load Cell
Force, F Load Cell Block Diagram: Output, V (V) Output, V Slope = 5 V/kN Input,

Block Diagram:

Output, V o (V)

Output, V o

Force, F Load Cell Block Diagram: Output, V (V) Output, V Slope = 5 V/kN Input,
Force, F Load Cell Block Diagram: Output, V (V) Output, V Slope = 5 V/kN Input,
Force, F Load Cell Block Diagram: Output, V (V) Output, V Slope = 5 V/kN Input,

Slope = 5 V/kN

Input, F i (kN)

Input, F (kN)

K

 
Force, F Load Cell Block Diagram: Output, V (V) Output, V Slope = 5 V/kN Input,

Output, V o (V)

Force, F Load Cell Block Diagram: Output, V (V) Output, V Slope = 5 V/kN Input,

Sensitivity, K = 5 V/kN

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Example

(1) A

0.01 /A meter with 5 A fsd,

R m

= /A x A

= 0.01 x 5 = 0.05

V max across the Meter will be = 5 A x 0.05

=

0.25 V for fsd.

(2) A 0.1 /A meter with 5 A fsd,will drop 2.5 V (i.e., it is 10 times less sensitive), which may bias the results

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Readability

• Readability is defined as the ease with which

readings may be taken with an instrument.

• Readability difficulties may often occur due to

parallax errors when an observer is noting the

position of a pointer on a calibrated scale

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Readability

Readability What is the value ? What is the value ? What is the value ?

What is the value ?

What is the value ?

What is the value ?

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Accuracy • Accuracy = the extent to which a measured value agrees with a true value

Accuracy

Accuracy = the extent to which a measured value agrees with a true value

The

difference

between

the

measured value & the true value is

known as ‘Error of measurement’ Accuracy is the quality of conformity

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Example: Accuracy

Who is more accurate when measuring a book that has a true length of 17.0 cm?

Example: Accuracy • Who is more accurate when measuring a book that has a true length

A :

17.0 cm, 16.0 cm, 18.0 cm, 15.0 cm

B ::

15.5 cm, 15.0 cm, 15.2 cm, 15.3 cm

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Precision

The precision of a measurement depends on the instrument used to measure it. For example, how long is this block?

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How big is the beetle?

How big is the beetle? Measure between the head and the tail! Between 1.5 and 1.6

Measure between the head and the tail!

Between 1.5 and 1.6 in

Measured length: 1.54 in

The 1 and 5 are known with certainty

The last digit (4) is estimated between the two nearest fine division marks.

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Example: Precision

Who is more precise when measuring the same 17.0 cm book?

A:

17.0 cm, 16.0 cm, 18.0 cm, 15.0 cm

Example: Precision Who is more precise when measuring the same 17.0 cm book? A : 17.0

B ::

15.5 cm, 15.0 cm, 15.2 cm, 15.3 cm

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Accuracy vs. Precision

High Accuracy High Precision

High Precision Low Accuracy

Accuracy vs. Precision High Accuracy High Precision High Precision Low Accuracy METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS/ FLORENCE/ 2016-2017/
Accuracy vs. Precision High Accuracy High Precision High Precision Low Accuracy METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS/ FLORENCE/ 2016-2017/

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The person hit the bull's- eye?

The person hit the bull's- eye? Three targets with three arrows each to shoot. How do
The person hit the bull's- eye? Three targets with three arrows each to shoot. How do
The person hit the bull's- eye? Three targets with three arrows each to shoot. How do
The person hit the bull's- eye? Three targets with three arrows each to shoot. How do
The person hit the bull's- eye? Three targets with three arrows each to shoot. How do
The person hit the bull's- eye? Three targets with three arrows each to shoot. How do

Three targets with three arrows each to shoot.

How do they compare?

Both

accurate

and

precise

Precise but not accurate

Neither

accurate

nor

precise

Can

Can you

you define

define accuracy

accuracy vs.

vs. precision?

precision?

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Uncertainty

The word uncertainty casts a doubt about the exactness of the measurement results

True value = Estimated value + Uncertainty

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Why Is There Uncertainty?

Measurements are performed with instruments,

and no instrument can read to an infinite number of

decimal places

Which of the instruments below has the greatest

uncertainty in measurement?

Why Is There Uncertainty? • Measurements are performed with instruments , and no instrument can read
Why Is There Uncertainty? • Measurements are performed with instruments , and no instrument can read

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Reading a Meterstick

 

.

l 2 .

.

.

.

I

.

.

.

.

I 3

.

.

.

.I

.

.

.

.

I 4 .

.

cm

   

First digit (known)

 

=

2

2.?? cm

 

Second digit (known)

 

= 0.7

 

2.7? cm

Third digit (estimated) between cm

0.05- 0.08

Length reported

or

2.76 cm

=

2.77 cm

or

2.78 cm

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Known + Estimated Digits

In 2.77 cm…

• Known

Known digits

digits 22 and

and 77 are

are 100%

100% certain

certain

• The

The third

third digit

digit 77 isis estimated

estimated (uncertain)

(uncertain)

• InIn the

the reported

reported length,

length, all

all three

three digits

digits

(2.77 cm)

(2.77

cm) are

are significant

significant including

including the

the

estimated

estimated one

one

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Performance of Instruments

All

instrumentation

systems

are

characterized by the system

characteristics or system response

There are two basic characteristics of Measuring instruments, they are

Static character

Dynamic character

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Static Characteristics

The instruments, which are

used to

measure the quantities which are

slowly varying with time or mostly

constant, i.e., do not vary with time,

is called ‘static characteristics’.

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STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INSTRUMENTS

Accuracy

Precision

Dead zone

Backlash

Sensitivity

True value

Resolution

Hysteresis

Threshold

Linearity

Drift

Range or Span

Error

Bias

Repeatability

Tolerance

Reproducibility

Stability

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Resolution

This is defined as the smallest input increment

change that gives some small but definite

numerical change in the output.

Resolution This is defined as the smallest input increment change that gives some small but definite
Resolution This is defined as the smallest input increment change that gives some small but definite

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Threshold

This minimum value of input below which no

output can be appeared is known as threshold

of the instrument.

Output

Threshold This minimum value of input below which no output can be appeared is known as
Threshold This minimum value of input below which no output can be appeared is known as

input

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Drift

Drift or Zero drift is variation in the output of

an instrument which is not caused by any

change in the input; it is commonly caused by

internal temperature changes and component

instability.

Sensitivity drift defines the amount by which

instrument’s sensitivity varies as ambient

conditions change.

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Output

Output

zero

drift

Output Output zero drift sensitivity drift Output zero drift input sensitivity drift METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS/ FLORENCE/
sensitivity drift
sensitivity drift

Output

zero

drift

input

sensitivity drift METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS/
sensitivity drift
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input

input

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Error – The deviation of the true value from the desired value is called Error

Repeatability – It is the closeness value of same output for same input under same operating condition

Reproducibility - It is the closeness value of same output for same input under same operating condition over a period of time

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Range

The ‘Range’ is the total range of values which an instrument is capable of measuring.

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Hysteresis

This is the algebraic difference between the average

errors at corresponding points of measurement

when approached from opposite directions, i.e.

increasing as opposed to decreasing values of the

input.

Measured

Value

Ideal Actual/ Input Value
Ideal
Actual/ Input
Value

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Hysteresis is

caused by

energy

storage/

dissipation in

the system.

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Zero stability

The ability of the instrument to return to

zero reading after the measured has returned to

zero

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Dead band

This is the range of different input values over

which there is no change in output value.

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Linearity- The ability to reproduce the input characteristics symmetrically and linearly
Linearity-
The
ability
to
reproduce
the
input
characteristics symmetrically and linearly

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Backlash – Lost motion or free play of mechanical elements are known as backlash

True value – The errorless value of measured variable is known as true value

Bias – The Constant Error Tolerance- Maximum Allowable error in Measurement

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Dynamic Characteristics

The

set

of

criteria

defined

for

the

instruments, which are changes rapidly with

time, is called ‘dynamic characteristics’.

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Dynamic Characteristics

Steady state periodic Transient Speed of response Measuring lag Fidelity Dynamic error

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Steady state periodic – Magnitude has a definite repeating time cycle

Transient – Magnitude whose output does not have definite repeating time cycle

Speed of response- System responds to changes in the measured quantity

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Measuring lag

Retardation type :Begins immediately after the change in measured quantity

Time

delay

lag

:

Begins after a

dead time

after the application of the input

Fidelity-

The

degree

to

which

a

measurement system indicates changes in the measured quantity without error Dynamic error- Difference between the

true value of the quantity changing with

time

&

the

value

indicated

measurement system

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the

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Errors in Instruments

Error = True value – Measured value

or

Error = Measured value - True value

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Types of Errors

Error of Measurement Instrumental error Error of observation Based on nature of errors Based on control

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Error of Measurement

Systematic

error

-Predictable

way

in

accordance due to conditions change

Random error - Unpredictable manner

Parasitic error - Incorrect execution of measurement

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Instrumental error

Error of a physical measure Error of a measuring mechanism Error of indication of a measuring instrument Error due to temperature Error due to friction Error due to inertia

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Error of observation

Reading error

Parallax error

Interpolation error

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Nature of Errors

Systematic error

Random error

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Based on control

Controllable errors

Calibration errors

Environmental (Ambient /Atmospheric

Condition) Errors

Stylus pressure errors

Avoidable errors

Non - Controllable errors

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Correction

Correction is defined as a value which is added algebraically to the uncorrected result of the measurement to compensate to an assumed systematic error.

Ex : Vernier Caliper, Micrometer

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Calibration

Calibration is the process of determining and adjusting an instruments accuracy to make sure its accuracy is with in manufacturing specifications.

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Importance of Calibration

Assurance of accurate of measurements Ability to trace measurements to International standards International acceptance of test/calibration reports Correct diagnosis of illness (medical reports) Consumer protection (legal metrology)

Meeting the requirements of ISO 9000 and

17025

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Interchangeability

A part which can be substituted for the component manufactured to the small shape and dimensions is known a interchangeable part.

The operation of substituting the part for similar manufactured components of the shape and dimensions is known as interchangeability.

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HIERARCHY OF MEASUREMENTS

HIERARCHY OF MEASUREMENTS METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS/ FLORENCE/ 2016-2017/ UNIT 1 80

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Compiled by Florence.T Florence.T Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Rathinam Technical Campus METROLOGY & MEASUREMENTS/

Compiled by

Florence.T Florence.T Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Rathinam Technical Campus

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