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1.Partikel ultramikroskopik, dapat melewati filter bakteri 2.Tidak memiliki organisasi sel biasa. 3.Mengandung salah satu jenis asam

1.Partikel ultramikroskopik, dapat melewati filter bakteri 2.Tidak memiliki organisasi sel biasa. 3.Mengandung salah satu jenis asam nukleat, RNA atau DNA 4.Tidak memiliki enzim yang diperlukan

untuk sintesis protein

dan asam

nukleat, sehingga tergantung pada

sistem sintesis sel

hospes.

5. Berkembang biak di dalam sel hospes.

-Ukuran virus berbeda-beda :

Yang terbesar virus cacar -------> 300 nm Yang terkecil virus penyakit kuku l

d

DOGMA CENTRAL BIOLOGI MOLEKUER

DNA

DOGMA CENTRAL BIOLOGI MOLEKUER DNA protein mRNA KEKECUALIAN, virus RNA  RNA Protein – DNA –

protein

mRNA

DOGMA CENTRAL BIOLOGI MOLEKUER DNA protein mRNA KEKECUALIAN, virus RNA  RNA Protein – DNA –

KEKECUALIAN, virus RNA

RNA Protein

–
DNA –
DNA
DOGMA CENTRAL BIOLOGI MOLEKUER DNA protein mRNA KEKECUALIAN, virus RNA  RNA Protein – DNA –

mRNA –

(reverse transkriptase)

Bentuk –Bentuk Virus

Bentuk –Bentuk Virus Peluru (Rabies) Kepala + ekor(Bakteriofag)

Peluru (Rabies)

Bentuk –Bentuk Virus Peluru (Rabies) Kepala + ekor(Bakteriofag)

Batang (mozaik)

Bentuk –Bentuk Virus Peluru (Rabies) Kepala + ekor(Bakteriofag)

Bata(Cacar)

Bentuk –Bentuk Virus Peluru (Rabies) Kepala + ekor(Bakteriofag)

Bulat(Influenza)

Kepala + ekor(Bakteriofag)

STURKTUR VIRUS
STURKTUR VIRUS

Inti virus berupa DNA atau RNA, yang dibungkus oleh selubu proteinyang disebut kapsid . Kapsid terdiri dari sejumlah s yang disebut kapsomer.

STURKTUR VIRUS Inti virus berupa DNA atau RNA, yang dibungkus oleh selubu proteinyang disebut kapsid .
STURKTUR VIRUS Inti virus berupa DNA atau RNA, yang dibungkus oleh selubu proteinyang disebut kapsid .

DNA/RNA

STURKTUR VIRUS Inti virus berupa DNA atau RNA, yang dibungkus oleh selubu proteinyang disebut kapsid .
STURKTUR VIRUS Inti virus berupa DNA atau RNA, yang dibungkus oleh selubu proteinyang disebut kapsid .

Kapsomer//kapsid Bentuk kubik (polihedral)

Kapsomer dapat berupa satu rantaian polipeptida, juga dapat terdiri atas protein monomer yang identik dan masing-masing terdiri atas rantai polipeptida. Susunan kapsomer dibedakan menjadi 3 bentuk:

A.Simetri kubik (polihedral) ----------> kapsome

berbentuk kubus menngelilingi asam nukleat, terdiri dari 20 sisi. Masing-masing sisi berbent segitiga sama sisi Contoh: Adenovirus

B. Simetri heliks --------> kapsomer mengelilingi asam nukleat yang berulir ======> Nukleokapsid berbentuk filamen kemudian melingkar di dalam selubung yang mengandung lemak. Contoh : virus mozaik

B. Simetri heliks --------> kapsomer mengelilingi asam nukleat yang berulir ======> Nukleokapsid berbentuk filamen kemudian melingkar
B. Simetri heliks --------> kapsomer mengelilingi asam nukleat yang berulir ======> Nukleokapsid berbentuk filamen kemudian melingkar

Asam nukleat yang diselubungi kapsid

B. Simetri heliks --------> kapsomer mengelilingi asam nukleat yang berulir ======> Nukleokapsid berbentuk filamen kemudian melingkar

disebut

nukleokapsid

RNA

Nukleokapsid

Kapsomer

B. Simetri heliks --------> kapsomer mengelilingi asam nukleat yang berulir ======> Nukleokapsid berbentuk filamen kemudian melingkar

Kapsid

C. Struktur komplek ----------> tidak menunjuk struktur kubik maupun heliks. Strukturnya kompleks misalnya seperti batu dan mempunyai tonjolan pada permukaan l Contoh : Poxvirus.

Poxvirus
Poxvirus

tonjolan

Nukleokapsid ada yang telanjang (tidak berselubung)

Patogen pada saluran pernapasan
Patogen pada saluran
pernapasan
Nukleokapsid ada yang telanjang (tidak berselubung) Patogen pada saluran pernapasan Penyebab diare Pada anak-anak

Penyebab diare Pada anak-anak

Nukleokapsid berselubung.

Nukleokapsid berselubung. Glikoprotein Nukleokaps id polihedral Selubung protein (peplomer Glikoprotein Nukleokap sid berulir Selubung lemak

Glikoprotein

Nukleokapsid berselubung. Glikoprotein Nukleokaps id polihedral Selubung protein (peplomer Glikoprotein Nukleokap sid berulir Selubung lemak

Nukleokaps id polihedral Selubung protein (peplomer

Nukleokapsid berselubung. Glikoprotein Nukleokaps id polihedral Selubung protein (peplomer Glikoprotein Nukleokap sid berulir Selubung lemak
Glikoprotein Nukleokap sid berulir Selubung lemak
Glikoprotein
Nukleokap
sid
berulir
Selubung lemak

Selubung berupa protein, terdiri dari subunit protein =====> peplomer. Peplomer dapat lebih dari satu, tergantung dari jenis virus, misalnya virus influenza:

= Peplomer berbentuk duri segitiga -------> hemaglutinin = Peplomer bentuk jamur ----------> neuraminidasa Partikel virus yang lengkap dengan selubung =====> vi

Selubung berupa protein, terdiri dari subunit protein =====> peplomer . Peplomer dapat lebih dari satu, tergantung

Neuraminidase

Selubung berupa protein, terdiri dari subunit protein =====> peplomer . Peplomer dapat lebih dari satu, tergantung

Hemaglutinin

Selubung berupa protein, terdiri dari subunit protein =====> peplomer . Peplomer dapat lebih dari satu, tergantung
Selubung berupa protein, terdiri dari subunit protein =====> peplomer . Peplomer dapat lebih dari satu, tergantung

Kapsid

RNA

Peplomer

Bacteriophages

Phages are Viruses That Infect Bacteria

Bacteriophages Phages are Viruses That Infect Bacteria Images: <a href=Bacteriophage viruses infecting a bacterium , Graham Colm, Public Domain, Wiki " id="pdf-obj-10-6" src="pdf-obj-10-6.jpg">

Images: Bacteriophage viruses infecting a bacterium, Graham Colm, Public Domain, Wiki

How Do Phages Reproduce? The ________________ of Bacteriophages A bacteriophage is a virus that attacks and
How Do Phages Reproduce?
The ________________
of
Bacteriophages
A bacteriophage is a virus that attacks and destroys bacterial cells.

Image: Bacteriophage Lytic Replication, Suly12 Wikimedia Commons

How Quickly Do Phages Reproduce?

Phage Replication Cycle

How Quickly Do Phages Reproduce? Phage Replication Cycle Source: Class Textbook, Microbiology by Bauman, Chapter 13.

Source: Class Textbook, Microbiology by Bauman, Chapter 13.

How Do Phages Reproduce?

Lysogenic Replication of Bacteriophages

How Do Phages Reproduce? Lysogenic Replication of Bacteriophages Image: <a href=Bacteriophage Lysogenic Replication , Suly12 Wikimedia Commons ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ " id="pdf-obj-13-6" src="pdf-obj-13-6.jpg">

Image: Bacteriophage Lysogenic Replication, Suly12 Wikimedia Commons

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

____________

Viruses That Infect Animal Cells

Same basic 1, 2, 3 replication pathway as bacteriophages.

Viruses That Infect Animal Cells Same basic 1, 2, 3 replication pathway as bacteriophages. Image: <aHuman Papilloma Virus (HPV) : NIH Visuals Online " id="pdf-obj-14-6" src="pdf-obj-14-6.jpg">
Viruses That Infect Animal Cells Same basic 1, 2, 3 replication pathway as bacteriophages. Image: <aHuman Papilloma Virus (HPV) : NIH Visuals Online " id="pdf-obj-14-8" src="pdf-obj-14-8.jpg">

Image: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) :

NIH Visuals Online

How Animal Viruses Get In and Out of Host Cells

Entry of Viruses into Animal Cells

Not completely understood, but appears to be 3 methods:

Direct penetration of naked virus

Viral genome enters cell, while capsid remains on cell’s surface. Like how phages enter bacteria.

Membrane fusion

Endocytosis

With membrane fusion and endoocytosis, the capsid is removed once inside the host cell.

Image: Virus Entry into Cell; Endocytosis & Exocytosis, NIGMS
Image: Virus Entry into Cell; Endocytosis & Exocytosis, NIGMS
How Animal Viruses Get In and Out of Host Cells Entry of Viruses into Animal Cells

How Animal Viruses Get In and Out of Host Cells

Exit of Viruses from Animal Cells

viruses

____________

After construction of capsid, naked viruses ,may be released from the animal cell through exocytosis or may cause lysis and death of the cell.

viruses

____________

Often released through a process

called budding. Virus exits cell with part of the cells membrane.

Endocytosis / Exocytosis Animation:

How Animal Viruses Get In and Out of Host Cells Exit of Viruses from Animal Cellshttp://www.phschool.com/science/biology_pl ace/biocoach/biomembrane2/cytosis.html Images: Endocytosis & Exocytosis, NIGMS; Rubella virions budding, PHIL # 10220 " id="pdf-obj-16-28" src="pdf-obj-16-28.jpg">
How Animal Viruses Get In and Out of Host Cells Exit of Viruses from Animal Cellshttp://www.phschool.com/science/biology_pl ace/biocoach/biomembrane2/cytosis.html Images: Endocytosis & Exocytosis, NIGMS; Rubella virions budding, PHIL # 10220 " id="pdf-obj-16-30" src="pdf-obj-16-30.jpg">

Images: Endocytosis & Exocytosis, NIGMS; Rubella virions budding, PHIL # 10220

Viral Disease:

______

_______

An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale infecting many people.

Viral Disease: ______ _______ An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads

In contrast to regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, pandemics occur irregularly, with

the 1918 Spanish flu the most serious pandemic in recent history.

Pandemics can cause high levels of mortality, with the Spanish influenza having been responsible for the deaths of 50 – 100 million people worldwide.

~ 3 influenza pandemics in each century for the last 300 years.

Most recent ones:

Asian Flu in 1957 Hong Kong Flu in 1968 Swine Flu in 2009 - 2010

Occur when a new strain of influenza virus is transmitted to humans from animals (especially pigs, chickens and ducks).

Avian influenza A H5N1 viruses (seen in gold) do not usually infect humans; however, several instances of human infections and outbreaks have been reported since 1997

(Source CDC PHIL #1841).

Seasonal Bird Flu Flu
Seasonal
Bird Flu
Flu

These new strains are unaffected by immunity people may have to older human flu strains, so can spread rapidly.

For more info see: http://www.pandemicflu.gov

Types of Influenza Viruses

Influenza A, B, C’s: Three types of influenza viruses.

Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics in winter. Influenza C infections cause only a mild respiratory illness.

H (what) N (who)? Influenza A subtypes

Based on two viral surface proteins:

hemagglutinin (H) neuraminidase (N). 16 different hemagglutinin subtypes and 9 different neuraminidase subtypes. Current subtypes of influenza A viruses found in people: H1N1 & H3N2.

Spring 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged, very different from regular human influenza A (H1N1) and caused a pandemic.

Influenza B viruses are not divided into subtypes.

Regular influenza A (H1N1), A (H3N2), and influenza B viruses are included in each year's seasonal influenza vaccine.

The seasonal flu vaccine does not protect against influenza C viruses.

This year’s seasonal vaccine will not protect against the 2009 H1N1 virus.

Influenza

is caused

by an

enveloped

ssRNA

virus.

Image: Influenza A Virus, National Institutes of Health; Information: Influenza Types,CDC

Virus: ____________

HERPESVIRIDAE: Large family of enveloped dsDNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.

Family name derived from the Greek word herpein ("to creep"), referring to the latent, recurring infections typical of this group of viruses. Seven known herpes viruses infect humans.

Enveloped DNA viruses of the Herpesviridae that often cause blistery lesions in the skin and mucous membranes

Antiviral treatments treat active infection but often do not cure latent viral disease.

Herpesviruses exist in latent and actively replicating

forms. The following are herpesviruses:

Cytomegalovirus can be silent or cause brain damage in newborns and blindness in AIDS patients

Epstein-Barr virus can cause infectious mononucleosis and is associated with Burkitt's lymphoma

Varicella zoster causes chicken pox and shingles Herpes simplex 2 (HSV2) causes genital lesions HSV1 is associated with mouth chancre sores.

Virus: ____________ HERPESVIRIDAE : Large family of enveloped dsDNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including

Virus: ____________

The Reproductive Cycle of a Retrovirus 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Building Reverse Integration Transcription Assembly
The Reproductive Cycle of a Retrovirus
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Building
Reverse
Integration
Transcription
Assembly
and
transcription
and
and
entry
Translation
Release
Viral
DNA
Cell
DNA
Viral RNA and
proteins
Receptor

A retrovirus is an enveloped ssRNA virus. It relies on the enzyme reverse transcriptase to use its RNA genome to build DNA, which can then be integrated into the host's genome. The virus then replicates as part of the cell's DNA.

Hidden Viruses

_____________

Bacteriophage DNA becomes integrated into DNA of host bacteria.

____________

When animal viruses remain dormant in host cells.

Hidden Viruses _____________ Bacteriophage DNA becomes integrated into DNA of host bacteria. ____________ When animal viruses

May be prolonged for years with no viral activity, signs, or symptoms.

Some latent viruses do not become incorporated into host chromosome.

When viral DNA is incorporated into host DNA, condition

is permanent; becomes permanent physical part of

host’s chromosome (examples: HIV, Varicella zoster, herpes).

The hidden viral DNA is known as a _________.

Image: Bacteriophage Lysogenic Replication, Suly12 Wikimedia Commons; Varicella zoster Herpesvirus, PHIL 1878.

Varicella zoster, and other Herpesviruses can become prophages, because have DNA as genetic material

Genetic instructions of all living things is encoded in the nucleic acid DNA.

Some viruses also have genetic instruction of DNA.

DNA viruses can become prophages by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the organisms that they infect.

Q: Can influenza virus become a prophage?

Q: Can a herpes virus become a prophage? Q: Can a retrovirus become a prophage?

Image: DNA Animation, Brian0918, Wiki, Pub Dom

Genetic instructions of all living things is encoded in the nucleic acid DNA. Some viruses also

How Can Viral Diseases Be Prevented and Treated?

Good hygiene

Avoid contact with contaminated food, water, fecal material or body fluids. Wash hands frequently.

Vaccines

How Can Viral Diseases Be Prevented and Treated?  Good hygiene Avoid contact with contaminated food,

Stimulate natural defenses with in the body.

Contain a component of or a weakened or ‘killed” virus particles.

Are developed for many once common illnesses such as smallpox, polio, mumps, chicken pox.

Not available for all viruses.

Anti-viral drugs (but not antibiotics)

Available for only a few viruses. Inhibit some virus development and/or relieve symptoms.

Image: Purchased from iStock,#5255912.jpg, small.

Prions

Prions (pree-ons) are infectious agents even simpler than viruses.

They are made of

but have no nucleic acid.

__________

Responsible for fatal neurodegenerative diseases called

transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

Good Protein Gone Bad?

Abnormal form of a normally harmless protein found in mammals and birds.

Can enter brain through infection, usually after being

ingested, or arise from a mutation.

Prions Prions (pree-ons) are infectious agents even simpler than viruses. They are made of but have

In brain, causes normal proteins to refold into abnormal shape.

As prion proteins multiply, neurons are destroyed and brain tissue becomes riddled with holes.

Unlike all other known agents of infection, they appear to lack

nucleic acid (DNA or RNA).

TSEs include:

  • - Creutzfeldt-Jakob (kroits-felt yock-ub) disease

  • - mad cow disease

  • - scrapie (neuro disease of sheep & goats)

It appears that this infectious agent can only be destroyed through incineration.

Prions Prions (pree-ons) are infectious agents even simpler than viruses. They are made of but have

PERBANDINGAN SIFAT VIRUS TERHADAP SEL

Makromolekul yg di luar sel diam, tetapi aktif di dalam sel

Melakukan metabolisme sendiri

Tidak dapat membelah diri di luar sel

Dapat membelah diri

Bukan sel

Sel

Parasit obligat

Sebagian besar merupakan sel bebas

Mengandung salah satu entah DNA atau RNA, tidak pernah keduanya ada

Mengandung DNA dan RNA

Genomnya berupa dsDNA, ssDNA, dsRNA atau ssRNA

Genomnya berupa dsDNA

Ukuran 10 nm sampai dg 300 nm

Ukuran 300 nm sampai dg 12 cm

Mempunyai selubung berupa kapsid

Mempunyai selubung berupa membran dan dinding sel

HIV

“Human Immunodeficiency Virus” A specific type of virus (a retrovirus)

HIV invades the helper T cells to replicate itself.

No Cure

AIDS

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HIV is the virus that causes AIDS Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection

A person with AIDS has a very weak immune system

No Cure

New HIV Infections in 2002 by Age Group

Stage 1 - Primary

Short, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infection

no symptoms at all

Infected person can infect other people

Stage 2 - Asymptomatic

Lasts for an average of ten years This stage is free from symptoms There may be swollen glands

The level of HIV in the blood drops to

very low levels

HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood

Stage 3 - Symptomatic

The symptoms are mild The immune system deteriorates emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers

Stage 3 - Symptomatic  The symptoms are mild  The immune system deteriorates  emergence

Stage 4 - HIV AIDS

The immune system weakens

The illnesses

become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis

Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS

Bacterial

Tuberculosis (TB) Strep pneumonia

Viral

Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Influenza (flu)

Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS  Bacterial  Tuberculosis (TB)  Strep pneumonia  Viral 

Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS

Parasitic

Pneumocystis carinii

Fungal

Candida Cryptococcus

Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS  Parasitic  Pneumocystis carinii  Fungal  Candida  Cryptococcus

Modes of HIV/AIDS Transmission

Modes of HIV/AIDS Transmission
Modes of HIV/AIDS Transmission
Modes of HIV/AIDS Transmission
Modes of HIV/AIDS Transmission

Through Bodily Fluids

Blood products Semen Vaginal fluids Breast Milk

Through IV Drug Use

Sharing Needles

Without sterilization

Increases the chances of contracting HIV

Through IV Drug Use  Sharing Needles  Without sterilization  Increases the chances of contracting

Through Sex

Intercourse (penile penetration into the vagina)

Oral Anal

Digital Sex

Mother-to-Baby

Before Birth During Birth Postpartum

After the birth

Mother-to-Baby  Before Birth  During Birth  Postpartum  After the birth
‘typical’ primary HIV-1 infection symptoms symptoms HIV proviral DNA HIV antibodies ‘window’ period HIV viral load
‘typical’ primary HIV-1
infection
symptoms
symptoms
HIV proviral DNA
HIV antibodies
‘window’
period
HIV viral load
HIV-1 p24 antigen
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
/
2
4
6
8
10
1° infection
weeks
years
Time following infection