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ADVANCE TOPIC IN

KINEMATICS AND MACHINE


1.FRICTION
2.STICTION
3.ANLYSIS OF SINGULAR
KINEMATIC CONFIGURATION
4.DYNAMIC STABILITY
5.ANLYSIS OF FLEXIBLE
MULTIBODY DYNAMICS

FRICTION
Kinetic friction is a force that acts between moving
surfaces. An object that is being moved over a
surface will experience a force in the opposite
direction as its movement. The magnitude of the
force depends on the coefficient of kinetic friction
between the two kinds of material. Every
combination is different.
The coefficient of kinetic friction is assigned the
Greek letter "mu" (), with a subscript "k". The
force of kinetic friction isktimes the normal force
on an object, and is expressed in units of Newtons
(N).

force of kinetic friction = (coefficient


of kinetic friction)(normal force)
Fk= k
Fk= force of kinetic friction
k= coefficient of kinetic friction
= normal force (Greek letter "eta")

STICTION
Stictionis the static friction that needs to be overcome to
enable relative motion of stationary objects in contact. [1]The
term is aportmanteauof the term "staticfriction",[2]perhaps
also influenced by the verb "stick".
Stiction is a problem for the design and materials science of
many moving linkages. This is particularly the case for linear
sliding joints, rather than rotating pivots.
Owing to simple geometry, the moving distance of a sliding
joint in two comparable linkages is longer than the
circumferential travel of a pivoting bearing, thus the forces
involved (for equivalentwork) are lower and stiction forces
become proportionally more significant. This issue has often led
to linkages being redesigned from sliding to purely pivoted
structures, just to avoid problems with stiction. An example is
theChapman strut, asuspensionlinkage developed by
Colin ChapmanofLotus cars

Stiction is a commonly used term when diagnosing diesel fuel powered


engines. The Ford Powerstroke 6.0-L and 7.3-L engines are the most
prevalent to experience cold start or injector stiction issues. The 7.3-L
was produced between 1994 and 2003, while the 6.0-L was produced
between 2003 and 2007. Both engines were manufactured by Navistar
International and incorporated the HEUI injector system.
These injectors use the engine oil to lubricate themselves and over time
the sticky friction build up causes the injector to malfunction and fail.
Alternatively to replacing injectors with new units, products are available
that rid the injector, turbos and transmission of stiction and prevent build
up. Leading engineers in the field have found in their research that 9 out
of 10 failing injectors in diesel trucks are cases of stiction, and once
removed are still in optimal working condition. [3]
Stiction is also the same threshold at which a rolling object would begin
to slide over a surface rather than rolling at the expected rate (and in the
case of a wheel, in the expected direction). In this case, it's called "rolling
friction" orr.

ANLYSIS OF SINGULAR KINEMATIC CONFIGURATION