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Recording Learning

Procedures, Processes
and Skills through
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Observing and Recording Learning

Performances, Procedures, Processes
and Skills through Simulation

A great deal of teaching time, particularly in the

early grades, is focused on development of

specific performance skills.
As teachers, we have to be interested in the
products of learning and know how our students
arrive at their product
The key to performance assessment is
simulation, as most paper and pencil devices
suffer from artificiality.
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Advantages of Simulation
It can be both a teaching and testing method
When presented in a game-like form, it allows

for the collection of data for events or situations

that only occur rarely
The simulation of an emergency such as the
loss of an engine can be used to train the pilots

BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

According to Gronlund and Linn (1990),

one must consider the following in
making compromises.

Determine through careful analysis the

critical aspects of the criterion situation

desired to simulate in view of the purpose of
Determine the minimum fidelity needed for
each aspect and estimate the worth of
increasing fidelity beyond the minimum
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

According to Gronlund and Linn (1990),

one must consider the following in
making compromises.

Develop a scheme for representing a

reasonably comprehensive set of aspects

within the limits of available resources.
Adjust comprehensiveness and fidelity,
compromising as necessary to achieve a
balancing of considerations but with primary
attention to the aspects shown by analysis to
be most critical for the purpose at hand.
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Some of the principal aspects of a

task analysis are as follows:

Developing a simulation that represents the

entire performance as accurate as possible

Specifying those elements in the task that are
greatest relevance to the quality of
performance, some of which are the following:
1.Speed of performance;
2.Accuracy of performance;
3.Number and seriousness of procedural errors;
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

4.Errors in following instructions;

5.Discrimination in selecting the appropriate
tools or equipment;
6.Economy of effort;
8.Intensity or force; and
9. Coherence and appropriateness of the
sequence of the steps followed.

BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Some of the principal aspects of a

task analysis are as follows:

Selecting elements for observations in

proportion to their emphasis in instruction

or training
Evaluating these elements in the light of
the conditions necessary for accurate
Selecting those elements requiring minimal
time and expense.
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Major Types of Simulation Tests

Situation Tests

In-Basket Tests

Examinee role-plays in
lifelike settings, which may
be social or involve
Examinee is presented
data, like letters, records
and memoranda and asked
to simulate decisionmaking or administrative
behavior. Simulates job
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Major Types of Simulation Tests


A standardized jobrelevant task is
Work-Sample Tests
presented, and
performance is observed.
Such games are
frequently used in
business, industry, and
the military to assess
problem-solving skills.
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

As such, it involves the following


Analysis of the desired performance;

Identification of crucial and representative

elements for observation;

Selection of the sequence of tasks that
incorporate these crucial elements;
Specification of the materials needed by the
examinee to accomplish the tasks;
Preparation of directions for examinee; and
Development of methods for recording results
of simulation.

BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

A.Using The Microscope

Checklist of Student Reactions to an Object under The
Noticeable Characteristics of
Sequence of Action
Students Behavior
A. Awkward in movements
B. Obviously dexterous in
C. Slow and deliberate
D. Very rapid
E. Fingers tremble
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Instructions: Rate the player each time he bats.

Place a tally mark on the space which precedes
the best description of players form in each six
categories. Write any additional comments
opposite each category.
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Assessing Products

Process and product are intimately related.

The decision to focus on product or process
or both rests on the responses to the
following questions:
1.Are the steps involved in arriving at the
product either indeterminate or covert?
2.Are the important characteristics of the
product apparent, and can they be
measured accurately and objectively?

BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Assessing Products

3.Is the effectiveness of the performance to

be discerned in the product itself?

4.Is there a sample product available to use
as scale?
5.Is the evaluation of the procedures
leading to the product impractical?

BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Assessing Products

If the answer to each of the foregoing

questions is yes, the teacher can focus

assessment on product evaluation.
Products can easily be assessed by the
careful use of rating scales and checklist.
The usefulness of any product assessment
will depend on the accuracy with which its
distinctive features have been defined and
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Assessing the Quality of an

Artistic Product

Assessment in the artistic and aesthetic

areas of human activity is quite difficult.

The problem posed by the wide variety of
relevant factors is compounded by the
subjective nature of aesthetic standards.
The assessment task can be approached
systematically and directly through the
use of a rating chart.
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :


A.Accuracy of
proportion of
suitability of distortion
B.Relationship of
C.Stability of subjects
D.Ease of interpretation

BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Key to Variations:
A.= Aspects add material to the
excellence of the picture
B.=Aspects noteworthy, but there is
room for improvement at this level
C.=Aspects not well utilized
D.=Drawing shows no regard for aspect
being judged
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Assessing Food Products

There is a need to consider both the

physical and aesthetic qualities which

will be rated.
Through the use of a rating scale, a
teacher can gather qualitative data
which can be used in confirming more
traditional information derived from test
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :


1.Appearan Irregular
Regular Shape
Dark brown
Uniform golden
or pale
3.Moisture Soggy interior Slightly moist
or too dry
4.Tenderne Tough or hard Tender; crisp crust
5.Lightness Heavy
6.Taste and Too sweet or Pleasing Flavor
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Oral Exams

similar to an oral supply or completion

items where the test taker completes or

supplies an answer for a question or
series of questions posed by a test giver.
Potentially useful technique

BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :


the oral examiner can

see if his question is

not to be overlooked is
the advantage of
flexibility, which simply
means that a variety of
behaviors can be
sampled using an oral
the examiner can
observe a wide range of
different reactions of


unreliability and

the amount of time
necessary to conduct
a thorough oral exam
it is difficult to

BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Principles of Oral Examinations

(Fiztpatrick & Morrison, 1999)

1.Use oral examinations only for the purposes for

which they are best suited.

2.Prepare in advance a detailed outline of materials
to be sampled in the examination event to the
extent of writing questions which will be asked.
3.Determine in advance how records of student
performance will be kept and what weights will be
assigned to various factors.
4.Keep questioning relevant to the purposes of the
course or program.
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Principles of Oral Examinations

(Fiztpatrick & Morrison, 1999)

5.Word questions in such a way that the students can

see the point of the question with minimum
6.Where several examiners are involved, make each
one responsible for questions on a specified part of
the full examination.
7.Judge students on the basis of their performance
precisely defined-not in terms of a generalized
impression of their total appearance.
8.Use both general and specific questions but do so
in some logical order.
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Principles of Oral Examinations

(Fiztpatrick & Morrison, 1999)

9.Pose questions which students with the training

which has preceded a particular examination can

reasonably be expected to know.
10.Do not spend a disproportionate time probing for
the answer to one question.
11.Develop some facility with several basic
techniques for successful oral examination creating
a friendly atmosphere, asking questions, and
recording responses.
BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

Principles of Oral Examinations

(Fiztpatrick & Morrison, 1999)

12.Make a written record of students performance at

the time it is given.
13.Allow students ample time to think through and
make responses to questions.
14.Avoid arguing with the student. Let the student
make the most of it as it is his show.

BIOtheGRADables A.Y. :

A.Y. : 2012 2013