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INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY

OF THE HUMAN PERSON

The
Human

The Human
Humans
as
Political
Beings
Person
and
Platos Just State
Social Contract Theories
the
Society
Hobbes Totalitarianism
Lockes Democracy
Rousseaus General Will

Humans as
Homo
Socius

Humans
Political
Beings
are social beings
Why people enter into
political association?
preservation
protection

Humans as
Aristotles
Arguments
Political
1. First Argument (Natural
Development/Evolution)
Beings
2. Second Argument
(Capacity of Speech)
3. Third Argument

Platos Idea of
Platos
Concept
of
a
Just
Society
Human Nature
1. Appetitive
nourishment,
reproduction
2. Spirited emotions,

Platos Idea of
Classification
of
Human
a
Just
Society
Persons
1. Desire-driven
(appetitive)
2. Power-driven (spirited)
3. Wise (rational)

Platos Idea of
Platos
Universal
a
Just
Society
Education
1. 0-10 years physical
education
2. 11-15 years music and
arts

Platos Idea of
Societal
Roles
a
Just
Society
1. Workers and Producers
2. Auxiliaries and Soldiers
3. Philosopher-kings

Platos Idea of
Allegory
of
the
Cave
a
Just
Society
1. Imprisonment in the
Cave
2. Departure from the Cave
3. Return to the Cave

Platos Idea of
a Just Society

Social
Humans are naturally
Contract
free.
Theories

No political society can


be established without
human consent.

Thomas
Hobbes
Concept
of
Hobbes
Human Nature
Totalitarianis
Humans are equal by
nature.
Humans m
equality

enables them to desire for

Thomas
Humans are naturally
Hobbes
wolfish unto one another.
Totalitarianis
Humans are selfish by
nature, distrustful,
competing for
mgain, safety
and glory.

Thomas
StateHobbes
of Nature
Everyone is at war with
everyone.
Totalitarianis
Nothing is unjust or just,
good or evil.m
There is no common

Thomas
The Need
for
a
Hobbes
Leviathan
Totalitarianis
An absolute power is
necessary to secure peace
and order inm
the society.
People need to enter a

Thomas
People would choose a
Hobbes
sovereign to whom natural
rights
are surrendered.
Totalitarianis
A strong sovereign
should be chosen
m to keep
the peace and order in the

Thomas
The Totalitarian
Society
Hobbes
All powers legislative,
executive,
judicial, military,
Totalitarianis
religious are vested in the
sovereign. m
All ways of life of the

Thomas
The government has the
Hobbes
power to direct the
economic,
cultural, social,
Totalitarianis
political and religious lives
of the people.
m
People are called

Thomas
The government is not
Hobbes
subjected to checks and
balances
and the limits
Totalitarianis
prescribed by any legal
document. m

The society is ruled by an

Thomas
Liberty
as
Luxury
Hobbes
Liberty is the main cause
ofTotalitarianis
miserable human
condition.
Liberties (expression,
m
religion, thought) can be

Thomas
Liberty may lead to
Hobbes
revolution and the
destruction
of the society.
Totalitarianis
There is no liberty in the
society except
mthat which is
allowed by the sovereign.

John Lockes
There is a natural law
Democracy
that governs the actions of
the people.
All people under the
state of nature are rational,
free, and equal.

John Lockes
State
of
Nature
Democracy
1. There is no written law.
2. There is no
impartial/objective
judge.
3. There is no common

John Lockes
Social
Contract
Democracy
1. Establish a political
society to address the
inconveniences
2. People and the
government on equal

John Lockes
Tasks
of
the
Government
Democracy
1. Enact written laws
(Legislative)
2. Settle controversies
(Judicial)
3. Enforce written laws

John Lockes
The people agree to obey
Democracy
the government and the
government, in turn,
protects peoples rights, life
and liberty.
Breach of this agreement

John Lockes
Democracy
Democracy
Democracy is a form of
government in which
sovereignty resides in the
people and all government
authority emanates from

John Lockes
People have the ultimate
Democracy
power to define the
economic, cultural, social,
and political landscapes of
the society.
A democratic society is

John Lockes
A democratic society is a
Democracy
society of free people
where people enjoy various
kinds of liberty which are
protected by the
constitution.

John Lockes
No person shall be
Democracy
deprived of life, liberty, or
property without due
process of law (Article III,
Section 1).

Jean Jacques
Man
is born free and
Rousseaus
everywhere he is in chains.
General
Will
Humans
are noble apelike savage.
Humans are not moral
but they are harmless and

Jean Jacques
State
of Nature
Rousseaus
Humans are essentially
General
Will
free.
There is no power to
demand obedience from
people.

Jean Jacques
They
are not beholden to
Rousseaus
anyone, not even to their
General
Will
families.
Freedom was deprived by
the institutionalization of
private property.

Jean Jacques
Political
Society
Rousseaus
1. Defend and protect life
General
Will
and goods of its
members
2. Protect and promote
liberty

Jean Jacques
There
should be an
Rousseaus
absolute unity among the
General
Will
people.
The general will is the
will of the collective body of
people (body politic).

Jean Jacques
TwoRousseaus
Questions
1. Can my decision be
General
Will
universalized?
2. Will my decision promote
the common good?

Jean Jacques
Freedom
Rousseaus
Freedom is not the act of
General
Will
doing anything that a
person wants. Freedom is
not doing what the
government wants.