You are on page 1of 36

Chapter

FOUR

Personality
and
Values

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

What
What is
is Personality?
Personality?
Personality
The sum total of ways in which an individual
reacts and interacts with others; measurable
traits a person exhibits.
Personality Traits
Enduring
characteristics that
describe an
individuals behavior.
2007 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights reserved.

Personality
Personality
Determinants
Determinants
Heredity
Heredity
Environment
Environment
Situation
Situation

The
The Myers-Briggs
Myers-Briggs Type
Type Indicator
Indicator
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
A personality test that taps four characteristics
and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality
types.
Personality
PersonalityTypes
Types
Extroverted
Extrovertedvs.
vs.Introverted
Introverted(E
(Eor
orI)I)
Sensing
Sensingvs.
vs.Intuitive
Intuitive(S
(Sor
orN)
N)
Thinking
Thinkingvs.
vs.Feeling
Feeling(T
(Tor
orF)
F)
Judging
Judgingvs.
vs.Perceiving
Perceiving(P
(Por
orJ)J)

Score
Scoreis
isaacombination
combinationof
of
all
four
(e.g.,
ENTJ)
all
four
(e.g.,
ENTJ)
2007 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights reserved.

Meyers-Briggs,
Meyers-Briggs, Continued
Continued
A Meyers-Briggs score
Can be a valuable too for self-awareness and
career guidance

BUT
Should not be used as a selection tool because
it has not been related to job performance!!!

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

The
The Big
Big Five
Five Model
Model of
of Personality
Personality Dimensions
Dimensions
Extroversion
Sociable, gregarious, and assertive

Agreeableness
Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting.

Conscientiousness
Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.

Emotional Stability
Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus
nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative).

Openness to Experience
Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Measuring
Measuring Personality
Personality

Personality is Measured By
Self-report surveys
Observer-rating surveys
Projective measures
Rorschach Inkblot Test
Thematic Apperception
Test

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Major
Major Personality
PersonalityAttributes
Attributes Influencing
Influencing OB
OB
Core Self-evaluation
Self-esteem
Locus of Control

Machiavellianism
Narcissism
Self-monitoring
Risk taking
Type A vs. Type B personality
Proactive Personality
2007 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights reserved.

Core
Core Self-Evaluation:
Self-Evaluation: Two
Two Main
Main Components
Components
Self Esteem
Individuals degree of liking or disliking
themselves.

Locus of Control
The degree to which people believe they
are masters of their own fate.
Internals (Internal locus of control)
Individuals who believe that they
control what happens to them.
Externals (External locus of control)
Individuals who believe that what
happens to them is controlled by
outside forces such as luck or
2007 Prentice
chance. Hall

Inc. All rights reserved.

Machiavellianism
Machiavellianism
Machiavellianism (Mach)
Degree to which an individual is
pragmatic, maintains emotional distance,
and believes that ends can justify means.

Conditions
ConditionsFavoring
FavoringHigh
HighMachs
Machs
Direct
Directinteraction
interactionwith
withothers
others
Minimal
Minimalrules
rulesand
andregulations
regulations
Emotions
Emotionsdistract
distractfor
forothers
others
2007 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights reserved.

Narcissism
Narcissism
A Narcissistic Person
Has grandiose sense of self-importance
Requires excessive admiration
Has a sense of entitlement
Is arrogant
Tends to be rated as less effective

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Self-Monitoring
Self-Monitoring
Self-Monitoring
A personality trait that
measures an individuals
ability to adjust his or her
behavior to external,
situational factors.
High
HighSelf-Monitors
Self-Monitors
Receive
Receivebetter
betterperformance
performance
ratings
ratings
Likely
Likelyto
toemerge
emergeas
asleaders
leaders
Show
Showless
lesscommitment
commitmentto
to
their
organizations
their
organizations
2007
Prentice
Hall
Inc. All rights reserved.

Risk-Taking
Risk-Taking
High Risk-taking Managers
Make quicker decisions
Use less information to make decisions
Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial
organizations

Low Risk-taking Managers


Are slower to make decisions
Require more information before making decisions
Exist in larger organizations with stable
environments

Risk Propensity
Aligning managers risk-taking propensity to job
requirements should be beneficial to organizations.

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Personality
Personality Types
Types

Type As
1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;
2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;
3. strive to think or do two or more things at once;
4. cannot cope with leisure time;
5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in
terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.
Type Bs
1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its
accompanying impatience;
2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements
or accomplishments;
3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their
superiority at any cost;
can relax
without
4.2007
Prentice
Hallguilt.

Inc. All rights reserved.

Personality
Personality Types
Types
Proactive Personality
Identifies
opportunities, shows
initiative, takes
action, and
perseveres until
meaningful change
occurs.
Creates positive
change in the
environment,
even in
regardless
2007 PrenticeorHall
spite
of constraints
Inc.
All rights
reserved. or

Chapter Check-Up: Personality


Which of the following is not a typical
personality trait considered to be
organizationally relevant?
Locus of control
Self-monitoring
Self-enhancing
Self esteem
Machiavellianism
Discuss with your neighbor how each of the three traits above would
influence a college instructors behavior, and where you think your
teacher falls with respect to each of them.
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-Up: Personality


Alison arrives to class and realizes that shes
forgotten her homework to turn in. She says Oh
man, its just not my lucky day today. Alison has
______________.

Alison has a high external locus of control. Alison believes that


things outside of her control determine what happens.

If Alison works on a team with you, and you have a very


high internal locus of control, what kinds of discussions
do you think the two of you might have? Discuss with a
friend.

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-Up: Personality


Julia is known for being a go-getter. She never leaves a task
incomplete, and is involved in a number of activities. Moreover,
shes at the top of her class. Shes so busy that sometimes, she
forgets to stop and eat lunch. Julia can be easily characterized
as someone that has/is a Type ____ Personality.

2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-Up: Personality


Julia is also likely to not be very

Happy?

Fun?

Creative?

Stressed?

In general, Type As are rarely creative because


they generally dont allocate the necessary time
for new solution development; they usually rely on
past experiences to solve problems in order to be
speedy.

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Values
Values
Definition: Mode of conduct or end state is personally
or socially preferable (i.e., what is right & good)
Terminal Values
Desirable End States

Instrumental Values
The ways/means for achieving ones terminal values

Value System: A hierarchy based on a ranking of


an individuals values in terms of their intensity.

Note: Values Vary by Cohort


2007 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights reserved.

Importance
Importance of
of Values
Values
Provide understanding of the attitudes,
motivation, and behaviors of individuals and
cultures.
Influence our perception of the world around us.
Represent interpretations of right and wrong.
Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are
preferred over others.

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Types
Types of
of Values
Values - Rokeach
Rokeach Value
Value Survey
Survey
Terminal Values
Desirable end-states of
existence; the goals that a
person would like to achieve
during his or her lifetime.

Instrumental Values
Preferable modes of
behavior or means of
achieving ones terminal
values.
2007 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights reserved.

Values
Values in
in
the
the
Rokeach
Rokeach
Survey
Survey

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human


Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

E X H I B I T 4-3
E X H I B I T 4-3

Values
Values in
in
the
the
Rokeach
Rokeach
Survey
Survey
(contd)
(contd)

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human


Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

E X H I B I T 4-3 (contd)
E X H I B I T 4-3 (contd)

Mean
MeanValue
ValueRankings
Rankingsof
of
Executives,
Executives,Union
Union
Members,
Members,and
andActivists
Activists

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, The Values of


Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and
Normative Implications, in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.)
Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich,
CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 12344.

E X H I B I T 4-4
E X H I B I T 4-4

Values,
Values, Loyalty,
Loyalty,and
and Ethical
Ethical Behavior
Behavior

Ethical Values and


Behaviors of
Leaders

2007 Prentice Hall


Ethical
Climate
in
Ethical
Climate
in
Inc. All rights reserved.

Values
Values across
across Cultures:
Cultures: Hofstedes
Hofstedes
Framework
Framework

Power Distance
Individualism vs. Collectivism
Masculinity vs. Femininity
Uncertainty Avoidance
Long-term and Short-term orientation

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Hofstedes
Hofstedes Framework
Framework for
for Assessing
Assessing Cultures
Cultures
Power Distance
The extent to which a society accepts
that power in institutions and
organizations is distributed unequally.
Low distance: relatively equal power
between those with status/wealth and
those without status/wealth
High distance: extremely unequal
power distribution between those with
status/wealth and those without
status/wealth
2007 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights reserved.

Hofstedes
Hofstedes Framework
Framework (contd)
(contd)
Individualism
The degree to which
people prefer to act
as individuals rather
than a member of
groups.

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Vs.

Collectivism
A tight social
framework in which
people expect others in
groups of which they
are a part to look after
them and protect
them.

Hofstedes
Hofstedes Framework
Framework (contd)
(contd)
Masculinity
The extent to which
the society values work
roles of achievement,
power, and control,
and where
assertiveness and
materialism are also
valued.

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Vs.

Femininity
The extent to
which there is little
differentiation
between roles for
men and women.

Hofstedes
Hofstedes Framework
Framework (contd)
(contd)
Uncertainty Avoidance
The extent to which a society feels
threatened by uncertain and ambiguous
situations and tries to avoid them.
High Uncertainty Avoidance:
Society does not like
ambiguous situations & tries to
avoid them.
Low Uncertainty Avoidance:
Society does not mind
ambiguous situations &
embraces them.

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Hofstedes
Hofstedes Framework
Framework (contd)
(contd)
Long-term Orientation
A national culture
attribute that
emphasizes the
future, thrift, and
persistence.

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Vs.

Short-term Orientation
A national culture
attribute that
emphasizes the present
and the here and now.

Achieving
Achieving Person-Job
Person-Job Fit
Fit
Personality-Job Fit
Theory (Holland)
Identifies six
personality types and
proposes that the fit
between personality
type and occupational
environment
determines satisfaction
and turnover.
2007 Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights reserved.

Personality
PersonalityTypes
Types
Realistic
Realistic
Investigative
Investigative
Social
Social
Conventional
Conventional
Enterprising
Enterprising
Artistic
Artistic

Hollands
Hollands
Typology
Typologyof
of
Personality
Personality
and
and
Congruent
Congruent
Occupations
Occupations

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 48
E X H I B I T 48

Relationships
Relationships
among
among
Occupational
Occupational
Personality
Personality
Types
Types

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Source: Reprinted by special permission of the publisher, Psychological


Assessment Resources, Inc., from Making Vocational Choices, copyright 1973,
1985, 1992 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 49
E X H I B I T 49

Organizational
Organizational Culture
Culture Profile
Profile (OCP)
(OCP)
Useful for determining personorganization fit
Survey that forces choices/rankings of
ones personal values
Helpful for identifying most important
values to look for in an organization (in
efforts to create a good fit)

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Check-Up: Values

In Country J most of the top management team meets

employees at the local bar for a beer on Fridays, and there


are no reserved parking spaces. Everyone is on a first
name basis with each other. Country J, according to
Hofstedes Framework, is probably low on what dimension?

Collectivism

Long Term Orientation

Uncertainty Avoidance

Power Distance

How would a College or University in Country J differ from your


College or University? Identify 3 differences and discuss with a

2007 Prentice Hall


Inc. All rights reserved.

neighbor.