THINKING ABOUT COMMUNICATION

Chapter#1

Communication Elements
      

Sender Message Medium Receiver Context Feedback Noise

Communication Systems

Formal System

Internal
 Newsletters  Memos  Group  Media

Meeting relations

 External

Communication Systems

Informal System
Grapevine  Conversations  Casual access to boss office

Flow of Communication

Downward Communication
 Two

Characteristics:

 Message

tends to get larger  Distortion

Upward Communication
 Two

Characteristics

 Requested

feedback to superiors  Unsolicited ideas/suggestions

Flow of Communication

Lateral Communication
 Characteristics
 Across

functional communication coordination  Cooperation

Barriers to communication
  

Technical Interference Semantic Interference Environmental Interference
Age  Gender  Physical Appearance  Cultural attitudes  Language Apprehension  Emotional  Filtering

Interpersonal Communication

Nonverbal Communication
– Advantages: Supports other communications
and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings – Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver‘s interpretation of message

Interpersonal Communication

Oral Communication
– Advantages: Speed and feedback
– Disadvantage: Distortion of the message

Written Communication
–Advantages: Tangible and verifiable
– Disadvantages: Time-consuming and lacks feedback

Nonverbal Communication

TYPES OF NON-VERBAL MESSAGES

Body Language or Kinesics  Clothing or Artifactual Communication  Voice or Paralanguage  Space and Distance, or Proxemic factors  Color  Time, or Chronemics  Touch, or Haptics

Nonverbal Communication

Body Language “The bodily gestures, postures, and facial
expressions by which a person communicates nonverbally with others”

Kinesics
Gesture  Posture  Facial Expressions  Gaze/Eye-Contact

Nonverbal Communication

Body language---Posture
OPEN / CLOSED  People with:  arms folded  legs crossed  bodies turned away  Are signaling that they are:  rejecting messages.  People with:  showing open hands  fully facing you  both feet planted on the ground  Are accepting them.

Nonverbal Communication

Body language---Posture
FORWARD/ BACK  When people are :  Leaning forward  Pointing towards you  They are  actively accepting or rejecting the message.  When people are :  Leaning back  looking up at the ceiling  cleaning their glasses  They are  Either passively absorbing or ignoring it.

Nonverbal Communication

Body Language-----Face
 Facial  Eyes  Lips

expressions

Nonverbal Communication

Artifactual Communication and Color
 Artifactual

communication, is an integral part of the nonverbal package  It includes the use of personal adornments such as clothing, jewellery, makeup, hairstyles, and beards.  People are apt to make inferences about us based on the way we dress.

Nonverbal Communication

Proxemic
 Edward

Hall says there are four different distances that we keep between ourselves and other people:
Intimate distance-0 to 18 inches;  Personal distance-18 inches to 4 feet;  Social distance-4 to 12 feet  Public distance-12 feet to the limit of sight.

Listening

What is Listening?
An active activity that involves receiving, deciphering, and perceiving a message with an intent to respond.

Approaches to Listening
 Passive

Listening-----no response  Active Listening-----interactive

Listening

Listening Empathy
 Mirroring

Techniques

Paraphrasing-----restating words  Clarifying-----restating full expression  Reflecting feelings  Summarizing
 

Listening to understand Listening as a critic

Active Listening Skills
     

Pay attention Look at the speaker Avoid distractions Don’t interrupt Ask questions Repeat what the person said

Questioning

Open question

How can we improve listening? Should we play? Why haven’t you done anything to control pollution?

Closed question

Loaded question

 

Hypothetical question----”What if” critical thinking Two-part question

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