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Fluid Mechanics Munson 6th edition

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National University of Sciences & Technology

1

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

For a static fluid, the only stress is the normal stress since by definition a fluid

subjected to a shear stress must deform and undergo motion. Normal stresses

are referred to as pressure p.

2

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Since

Therefore

&

3

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

The angle was arbitrarily chosen so we can conclude that the pressure at a point in

a fluid at rest, or in motion, is independent of direction as long as there are no

shearing stresses present.

This important result is known as Pascals law.

4

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Consider a small rectangular element of fluid removed from some arbitrary

position within the mass of fluid.

There are two types of forces acting on this element: surface forces due to the

pressure, and a body force equal to the weight of the element

Here Taylor series expansion of

the pressure at the element

center is used to approximate

the pressures a short distance

away and neglecting higher

order terms

5

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

The resultant surface force in y direction is:

The resultant surface force acting on the element can be expressed in vector form as

Where,

(Pressure gradient)

6

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

element is

. (2.2)

This is the general equation of motion for a fluid in which there are no shearing

stresses.

7

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

For a fluid at rest a = 0. so the general equation reduces to

or in component form

p

i max ,

x

p

j ma y ,

y

p

k ma z

z

. (2.3)

These equations show that the pressure does not depend on x or y. Thus, as we

move from point to point in a horizontal plane any plane parallel to the xy plane,

the pressure does not change. Since p depends only on z, the last Equation can

be written as the ordinary differential equation

. (2.4)

From this equation we conclude that for liquids or gases at rest the pressure

gradient in the vertical direction at any point in a fluid depends only on the specific

weight of the fluid at that point.

8

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

2.3.1 Incompressible Fluid

For incompressible fluids, Eq. 2.4 can be directly integrated as follows:

. (2.7)

hydrostatic distribution, and Eq. 2.7 shows that in an

incompressible fluid at rest the pressure varies linearly

with depth.

9

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

2.3.1 Incompressible Fluid

Pressure Head

It can also be observed from Eq. 2.7 that the pressure difference between two

points can be specified by the distance h since

In this case h is called the pressure head and is interpreted as the height of a

column of fluid of specific weight required to give a pressure difference. e.g., a

pressure difference of 101325Pa can be specified in terms of pressure head as

10.34 m of water or 760 mm of Hg

As is demonstrated by above equations, the pressure in a homogeneous,

incompressible fluid at rest depends on the depth of the fluid relative to some

reference plane, and it is not influenced by the size or shape of the tank or container

in which the fluid is held.

10

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

2.3.2 Compressible Fluid

Substituting equation of state (for an ideal gas) in eq. 2.4

If we assume that the temperature has a constant value (To) over the range z1 to z2

(isothermal conditions)

11

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

12

13

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

2.4

Standard Atmosphere

the earths atmosphere.

by a series of linear segments, it is

possible to integrate Eq. 2.9 to obtain the

corresponding pressure variation. For

example, in the troposphere, which

extends to an altitude of about 11 km the

temperature variation is of the form

14

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

2.4

Standard Atmosphere

15

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Since pressure is a very important characteristic of a fluid field, it is not

surprising that numerous devices and techniques are used in its measurement.

The pressure at a point within a fluid mass will be designated as either an

absolute pressure or a gage pressure. Absolute pressure is measured relative

to a perfect vacuum (absolute zero pressure), whereas gage pressure is

measured relative to the local atmospheric pressure. Thus, a gage pressure of

zero corresponds to a pressure that is equal to the local atmospheric pressure.

Absolute pressures are always positive, but gage pressures can be either

positive or negative depending on whether the pressure is above atmospheric

pressure (a positive value) or below atmospheric pressure (a negative value). A

negative gage pressure is also referred to as a suction or vacuum pressure.

16

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Barometer

a barometer which in its simplest form consists of a

glass tube closed at one end with the open end

immersed in a container of mercury as shown in

Fig.; thus, atmospheric pressure is often referred to

as the barometric pressure.

with its open end up) and then turned upside down

(open end down), with the open end in the container

of mercury. The column of mercury will come to an

equilibrium position where its weight plus the force

due to the vapor pressure (which develops in the

space above the column) balances the force due to

the atmospheric pressure. Thus

17

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

2.6 Manometry

A standard technique for measuring pressure involves the use of liquid columns in vertical

or inclined tubes. Pressure measuring devices based on this technique are called

manometers. Manometers use vertical or inclined liquid columns to measure pressure.

2. U-Tube Manometer

1. Piezometer Tube

cant be used for vacuum pressure

applicable only for liquids

applicable for both liquids and gases

18

2.6 Manometry

end of the manometer system and working around

to the other, we will start at the airoil interface in

the tank and proceed to the open end where the

pressure is zero. The pressure at level (1) is

This pressure is equal to the pressure at level (2),

since these two points are at the same elevation in a

homogeneous fluid at rest. As we move from level

(2) to the open end, the pressure must decrease and

at the open end the pressure is zero. Thus, the

manometer equation can be expressed as

19

20

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

2.6 Manometry

3. Differential U-Tube Manometer

21

22

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

2.6 Manometry

4. Inclined U-Tube Manometer

Inclined-tube manometers can be used to measure small pressure differences more

accurately.

in gas pressures so that if pipes A and B contain a gas then

23

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Measuring Devices

Please read this article from the text book as a home assignment

24

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Tank Bottom

25

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

General Case

If atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the bottom,

as is illustrated, the resultant force on the bottom is

simply due to the liquid in the tank.

Since the pressure is constant and uniformly distributed

over the bottom, the resultant force acts through the

centroid of the area as shown in Figure (a) [top right].

As shown in Figure (b) [bottom right], the pressure on

the ends of the tank is not uniformly distributed.

Determination of the resultant force for situations such

as this is going to be presented in this section.

26

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

General Case

27

General Case

Then the resultant force can be found by

summing these differential forces over the

entire surface

We note h = ysin

moment of area about the x-axis

centroid measured from the x axis which

passes through 0 of the object.

hc

28

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

General Case

hc

where is hc the vertical distance from the fluid surface to the centroid of the area. Note

that the magnitude of the force is independent of the angle . As indicated by the figure

below, it depends only on the specific weight of the fluid, the total area, and the depth

of the centroid of the area below the surface.

Physically, The magnitude of the resultant fluid force is equal to the pressure acting at

the centroid of the area multiplied by the total area.

Since all the differential forces that were summed to obtain FR are

perpendicular to the surface, the resultant FR must also be

perpendicular to the surface.

29

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

General Case

the Parallel axis theorem from

Wikipedia/google

General Case

General Case

32

34

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

35

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

36

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Vertical Wall

37

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Vertical Wall

38

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Vertical Wall

39

Vertical Wall

40

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Vertical Wall

41

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

42

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

43

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

45

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

Archimedes Principle

Archimedes Principle states that the buoyant force has a magnitude equal to the

weight of the fluid displaced by the body and is directed vertically upward.

Archimedes Principle

48

Archimedes Principle

50

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

51

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

52

For floating bodies the stability problem is more

complicated, since as the body rotates the

location of the center of buoyancy (which passes

through the centroid of the displaced volume)

may change.

As is shown in Fig. 2.27, a floating body such as

a barge that rides low in the water can be stable

even though the center of gravity lies above the

center of buoyancy.

This is true since as the body rotates the buoyant

force, shifts to pass through the centroid of the

newly formed displaced volume and, as

illustrated, combines with the weight, to form a

couple which will cause the body to return to its

original equilibrium position.

However, for the relatively tall, slender body

shown in Fig. 2.28, a small rotational

displacement can cause the buoyant force and

the weight to form an overturning couple as

illustrated.

53

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

54

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

55

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

56

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

57

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

60

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

61

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

2.27, 2.28, 2.32, 2.41, 2.54, 2.61, 2.113, 2.115, 2.118, 2.120

Total problems = 10 ( 2 problems per student)

63

Chapter 2 : Fluid Statics

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