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REALISATION OF

MHO RELAY USING


PROGRAMMABLE
LOGIC
CONTROLLER(PLC)

INTRODUCTION
PROTECTIVE

RELAYS
ARE
OF
PARAMOUNT
IMPORTANCE IN POWER SYSTEM.
THEY SENSE THE FAULT THEN DETERMINES ITS
LOCATION AND FINALLY SENDS A TRIPPING SIGNAL
TO THE CIRCUIT BREAKER.
RELIABLE,EFFICIENT AND FAST IN OPERATION
PRIMARY-FIRST LINE OF DEFENCE.
BACKUP RELAYS-SECOND LINE OF DEFENCE USEND
WHEN PRIMARY MALOPERATES DUE TO
BAD CONTACTS, WRONG SETTING,OPEN CIRCUIT IN
RELAY COIL
. BACKUPS HAVE LONGER OPERATING TIME.

OPERATING PRICIPLE
PROTECTION AGAINST SHORT CIRCUITS BY

VIRTUE OF CURRENT AND/OR VOLTAGE


SUPPLIED BY CTs and PTs

to trip

Sensing
element

Comparison
element

Control
element

BASIC ELEMENTS OF A RELAY

Types of relays

OVERCURRENT
UNDERVOLTAGE,
UNDER-FREQUENCY
DIRECTIONAL,
DIFFERNTIAL,
DISTANCE

DISTANCE RELAYS
Action depends upon the distance of the feeding

point to the fault.


The time of operation is a function of the ratio of
voltage and current.
They are double actuating quantity relays.
Current-pick up torque
Voltage-negative torque
Relay operates when V/I ratio falls below a
predetermined value.
Each value of V/I measured from relay location
corresponds to distance between relaying point
and fault along the line.

MERITS OF DISTANCE RELAYS


The protection zone is not exact.
High speed protection
Can be employed as primary and back up
Used where overcurrent relays are slow and

not so selective.
Independent of changes in magnitudes of
short circuit currents
Used for phase fault and ground fault
protection of transmission lines

MHO RELAY
Best suited for phase fault relaying for long

lines.
Most sensitive.
Combines both distance and directional
function in one unit.
Also known as admittance relay
Its a voltage restrained directional relay.

Operating time v/s


impedance charateristic

Torque equation
T=KVIcos(-)-KV-K

IF SPRING ACTION IS NEGLECTED,


X
Z=K/K*cos(-)
Z=Zrcos(-)
Zr=K/K=ohmic setting of
the relay
=angle by which I lags V
Positive
Negative
=maximum torque angle
torque
torque
Ycos(-)= K/K

ZONE SPECIFICATION
ZONE 1-80-85% OF THE
LINE
R1

ZONE 2- 15-20
%OF THE LINE

R2
ZF1

ZF2

FAULTY ZONE

PRIMARY
BACK UP
PROTECTION
PROTECTION
(INSTANTANEOSLY (WITH TIME LAG)
)

ZONE 1(80-90% OF
THE LINE)
ZONE 2(15-20%
FROM THE END OF
THE LINE)

ZF1<Z1A RELAY1
OPERATES

RELAY 2 OPERATES

ZF2<Z2A: RELAY 2
OPERATES

RELAY 1 OPERATES

OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT


The project is based upon the controlling

feature and increasing use of plc.


Mho relay is realised by calculating the
impedance between relay and fault point.
If the impedance is less than the set
impedance and the phase difference is within
0 and 90,the relay operates.
Two zones with their individual primary and
backup protection have been considered by
means of two relays.

PLC
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER
There are four signal inputs and two

controlling inputs
There are four outputs (Q2,Q3,Q4,Q7)
Various blocks used are
a. GE REAL
b. MOV REAL
c. INT TO REAL
d. ON DELAY TIMER
e. COUNTERS

Block diagram for realisation


of mho relay using PLC

Flow Chart

Output

Conclusion

ried our level best to implement the mho relay using PLC.
here is some scope for improvement in our project.
are neglecting the higher order harmonics but if we use
e detector externally and take it as external input ,the result
e much reliable.
we can get proper external input and implement it properly,
give better output.
eference value should be much practical.
*
we could use phase coincide method for phase comparison it
ve more correct result.
se improvements are made than it has some advantages also
s more reliable than electro-mechanical relay.
an perform the task of more than one relay.
intenance hazard is minimum etc.
considering the all cases it can be concluded that there is some
e of improvement but we are able to implement all the features
o relay in this project.

THANK YOU