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Chapter 02

Lecture Outline
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Chapter 2 Outline

The Study of Cells


A Prototypical Cell
Plasma Membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Life Cycle of the Cell
Aging and the Cell

The Study of Cells


Cell Biology: The study of cells (cytology)
Only visible by microscopy
Measured in micrometers (m)
1 cm = 10,000 m

Sizes vary
From 7m (RBC) to 120m (oocyte)

Shapes vary
Flat, cylindrical, oval, and irregular in shape

Figure 2.1

Types of Microscopy

Light microscopy (LM)

Visible light passes through the cell

Transmission electron microscopy


(TEM)

A beam of electrons passes through thin slice


of specimen
2D image

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

Beam of electrons bounces off surface of the


cell to provide a 3D image of the cell surface

Comparison of the
Three Types of Microscopy

Figure 2.2

Cellular Functions

Covering
Lining
Storage
Movement
Connection
Defense
Communication
Reproduction

Cellular Functions

A Prototypical Cell

Most human cells have three basic parts:


1. Plasma membrane
Selective outer barrier

2. Cytoplasm
Cellular contents; cytosol, inclusions, and
organelles

3. Nucleus
Control center

The Structure of a Cell

Figure 2.3

Plasma Membrane
Also called the cell membrane
An extremely thin outer border on cell
Serves as a selective barrier that
regulates the passage of gases, nutrients,
and wastes between the internal and
external environments of the cell

Structure of the Plasma Membrane

Figure 2.4

Other Lipids
Cholesterol

About 20% of all membrane lipids


Strengthens and stabilizes membrane against
extreme temperature

Glycolipids

About 5 to 10% of all membrane lipids


Have carbohydrate (sugar) molecules attached
facing out, forming the glycocaylx

Transport Across the Plasma


Membrane

Membrane permeability influenced by


several factors:

Transport proteins
Plasma membrane structure
Concentration gradient
Ionic charge
Lipid solubility
Molecular size

Transport Across the Plasma


Membrane
Two general types of membrane transport:
Passive Transport

Materials move down their concentration


gradient = diffusion
Does not require energy from the cell

Active Transport

Materials are moved against concentration


gradient
Requires energy from the cell

Passive Transport

All involve diffusion


Four types:
1. Simple diffusion
2. Osmosis
3. Facilitated diffusion
4. Bulk filtration

Passive Transport
Simple diffusion
Small and/or nonpolar molecules move
down concentration gradient
Examples:

Movement of O2 out of lungs (higher


concentration) into blood (lower concentration)
Movement of CO2 from blood (higher
concentration) into lungs (lower concentration)

Passive Transport
Osmosis
Diffusion of water
Same principle as simple diffusion
H2O moves from region of higher
concentration to region of lower
concentration

Passive Transport
Facilitated diffusion
For large and/or polar molecules
Requires a specific transport protein that
assists movement across membrane
Bulk filtration
Diffusion of both liquids (solvents) and
dissolved molecules (solutes) across a
plasma membrane

Active Transport

Movement of a molecule against a


concentration gradient
Requires energy in the form of ATP
Includes transport using ion pumps
Example: Sodium-potassium pump

Na+ and K+ are moved in opposite directions against their


concentration gradients

May involve bulk transport

Exocytosis and endocytosis

Bulk Transport

Type of active transport that moves large


molecules or bulk structures across the
plasma membrane
Can go in either direction:
1. Exocytosis: Out of the cell
2. Endocytosis: Into the cell

Bulk Transport
Exocytosis
Materials secreted out of cell and
packaged into vesicles
Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane
and materials are released
Endocytosis
Opposite of exocytosis
Materials are taken into the cell
packaged into vesicles

Exocytosis

Figure 2.6

Three Forms of Endocytosis


Pinocytosis
Nonspecific uptake of extracellular fluid

Figure 2.7b

Cytoplasm

All materials between plasma membrane


and nucleus:
1. Cytosol
2. Inclusions
3. Organelles

Cytosol
A viscous, syruplike fluid containing many
different dissolved substances, such as:
Ions
Nutrients
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Other small molecules

Inclusions

Large storage aggregates of complex


molecules found in the cytosol
Examples:
Melanin: Brown pigment in skin cells
Glycogen: Long chains of sugars in the
liver and skeletal muscles

Organelles

Means little organs


Many types; each perform different function

A division of labor
The type and number of organelles within a cell is a
reflection of the cells function

Organelles can be classified in two types:


1. Membrane-bound
2. Non-membrane-bound

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

A network of intracellular membrane-bound


tunnels

Enclosed spaces are called cisternae

Two types of ER:

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)


Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Figure 2.8

Smooth ER

Walls have a smooth appearance


Continuous with rough ER
Functions include:
1. Synthesis, transport, and storage of lipids
including steroid hormones
2. Metabolism of carbohydrates
3. Detoxification of drugs, alcohol, and poisons

Rough ER

Walls appear rough due to attachment of


ribosomes on outside of the RER membrane

Ribosomes synthesize proteins

The RER functions to synthesize, transport, or


store proteins for:
1. Secretion by the cell
2. Incorporation into the plasma membrane
3. Creation of lysosomes

Golgi Apparatus
Function to receive proteins and lipids
from the RER for modification, sorting, and
packaging
Stacked cisternae whose lateral edges
bulge, pinch off, and give rise to small
transport and secretory vesicles
Receiving region is the cis-face
Shipping region is the trans-face

Golgi Apparatus

Figure 2.9

Protein Flow through the


Golgi Apparatus
1. Proteins synthesized in RER get packaged into
transport vesicles.
2. Transport vesicles pinch off from RER and fuse
with the receiving cis-face of the Golgi apparatus.
3. The proteins move between and are modified in
the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus.
4. Modified proteins are packaged in secretory
vesicles.
5. Secretory vesicles either participate in exocytosis
or become lysosomes in the cell.

Golgi Apparatus

Figure 2.9b

Lysosomes
Vesicles generated by the Golgi apparatus
Contain enzymes used to digest and
remove waste products and damaged
organelles within the cell (autophagy)
When a cell is dying it releases lysosomal
enzymes that digest the cell (autolysis)

Lysosomes

Figure 2.10

Peroxisomes
Vesicles formed by pinching off from the
rough ER; smaller than lysosomes
Use O2 and the enzyme catalase to
detoxify harmful molecules taken into the
cell

Peroxisomes

Figure 2.11

Mitochondria
Bean-shaped organelles with double
membrane
Inner membrane folded into shelf-like cristae
Internal fluid called the matrix

Function to produce a high energy


containing molecule called ATP on the
cristae
Cells that require more energy have more
mitochondria than cells requiring less
energy

Mitochondria

Figure 2.12

Ribosomes
Comprised of a large and small subunit
Responsible for protein synthesis
Free ribosomes float unattached within
the cytosol
Fixed ribosomes are attached to the
outer surface of rough ER

Ribosomes

Figure 2.13

Cytoskeleton

Proteins organized in the cytosol as solid


filaments or hollow tubes
Three cytoskeletal components:
1. Microfilaments
2. Intermediate filaments
3. Microtubules

Intermediate Filaments
812 nm in diameter
Protein composition varies
Provide structural support and stabilize
junctions between apposed cells

The Cytoskeleton

Figure 2.14

Cilia and Flagella


Projections of the cell containing
cytoplasm and microtubules capable of
movement
Cilia: Grouped on cells that move objects
across their surface
Example: Cells of the respiratory tree and
oviduct

Flagella: Longer than cilia, and usually


singular; used to propel a cell
Example: Sperm

Cilia and Flagella

Figure 2.16

Nucleus
Control center for cellular activity
Composed of three major components:
1. Nuclear envelope
2. Nucleoli
3. DNA, chromatin, and chromosomes

Nucleoli
Dark-staining bodies within the nucleus
Composed of RNA, enzymes, and various
proteins
Responsible for making the components
of the small and large units of the
ribosome

Nucleus

Figure 2.17

DNA, Chromatin, and Chromosomes


The nucleus houses deoxyribonucleic
acid (DNA), a complex molecule
containing genetic material
When the cell is not dividing, nuclear DNA
is unwound into fine filaments called
chromatin
During cell division chromatin coils tightly to
form chromosomes

Life Cycle of the Cell


Cells are always in one of two states:
Interphase: Maintenance (resting) phase
between cell divisions where the following
activities occur:
Normal metabolic activities
Prep for cell division

Mitotic phase: When the cell divides

Interphase

Most cells spend the majority of their


lives in interphase
Divided into three stages:

G1 Phase

Cells grow, replicate organelles, produce proteins for


replication, and centrioles just prior to cell division

S Phase

Synthesis phase where DNA replicates in preparation for cell


division

G2 Phase

Centriole replication is complete


Other organelle production continues
Enzymes needed for cell division are synthesized

The Cell Cycle

Figure 2.19

Interphase,
Mitosis, and
Cytokinesis

Figure 2.20a

Mitotic (M) Phase

Mitotic cell division is the process by


which two daughter cells are produced
that are genetically identical to the
original (mother) cell
Two distinct events occur in this phase:

Mitosis: Division of the nucleus


Cytokinesis: Division of the cytoplasm

Stages of Mitosis

Mitosis has four consecutive stages:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

The Cell Cycle

Figure 2.19

Prophase
Chromatin supercoils
forming chromosomes
Duplicate, identical sister
chromatids are joined at a
region called the
centromere
Elongated microtubules
called spindle fibers begin
to grow from each centriole
The end of prophase is
marked by the dissolution of
the nuclear envelope
Figure 2.20b

Metaphase
Chromosomes
line up along the
equatorial plate
Spindle fibers
attach to the
centromere of
sister chromatids
and form an oval
structure array
called the mitotic
spindle
Figure 2.20c

Anaphase
Spindle fibers
pull sister
chromatids apart
to opposite ends
of the dividing
cell

Figure 2.20d

Telophase
The nuclear envelope forms
around each set of
chromosomes
Chromosomes begin to
uncoil and the mitotic
spindle disappears
A pinched area, the
cleavage furrow, appears
that will complete
cytoplasmic division
Figure 2.20e

Aging and the Cell

Aging is a normal and continuous


process

Indicated by changes in number of


organelles or chromatin structure

Cells can die in two general ways:


1. Necrosis: Irreversible damage via
harmful agents or mechanical damage
2. Apoptosis: Programmed cell death