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DESIGN OF RIGID

HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS

Prof. V Vinayaka Ram, Ph.D.,


Department of Civil Engineering
Birla Institute of Technology, Pilani Hyderabad Campus

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CONCRETE PAVEMENT OPTIONS

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements

Continuously Reinforced Concrete


Pavements

Pre-stressed Concrete Pavement

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FACTORS AFFECTING PAVEMENT DAMAGE

Vehicle

Pavement

Environment

Speed

Axle forces

GVW

Axle and tyre properties

Pavement type, thickness, roughness

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FACTORS AFFECTING RIGID


PAVEMENT DESIGN

Axle/Wheel Loads
Single Axle 10.2t, Tandem 19t & Tridem Axle 24t

Load Repetitions

Tire Pressure (0.7 to 1 Mpa) 0.8 Mpa

Thickness > 20Cm Tire Pressure need not be


considered

Lateral Placement of the Axles


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FACTORS AFFECTING RIGID


PAVEMENT DESIGN (Contd..)

Unpredicted Heavy Truck Movements


Load Safety Factor (1.2, 1.1 & 1.0 for three
hierarchies of roads)

Design Axle Load 98th Percentile

Design Period (15 to 30 Years)

Design Traffic: IRC 9 Traffic Census

Tire Tangential to Longitudinal Edge - Critical


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FACTORS AFFECTING RIGID PAVEMENT


DESIGN (Contd..)

Fatigue 25% of Two-Lane Two-Way Commercial


Vehicles (Design Traffic)
Four or Multi Lane Highways 25% of Commercial
Vehicles in the Predominant
Direction

CSA = [365 * A * {(1+r)n 1}] / r

Temperature Differential =
Thermal Diffusibility of CC,
Velocity etc.)

Table 1 - IRC 58 2002 (Six Different Regions in India)

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f(Solar Radiation received,


Losses Due to Wind

CHARACTERISTICS OF SUB-GRADE & SUB-BASE

Modulus of Sub-grade Reaction (K) Pressure


per Unit Deflection of Foundation @ Limiting
Deflection

Limiting Deflection 1.25mm

Plate Diameter 75cm

K75 = 0.5 x K30

CBR K Correlations (Tables 2, 3 & 4)

125 Micron thick Polythene Layer between CC


and DLC Layers to Reduce Interlayer Friction

Drainage Layer above Sub-grade


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FACTORS AFFECTING RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN


(Contd..)

Characteristics of Concrete

Design Strength

S
=

=
Target Ave. Flexural Strength @ 28 days
S + Za

Characteristic Flexural Strength @ 28 Days

Za =
Tolerance Factor for Desired Confidence
Limits (Table 5 IRC 58)

=
Expected Standard Deviation of Field
Samples (IS 456 2000)
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FACTORS AFFECTING RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN


(Contd..)

Flexural StrengthMR Test3rd Point LoadingIS 516

Aggregate Size > 19mm - 15x15x70 Cm

Aggregate Size < 19mm - 10x10x50 Cm

Flexural Strength 4.5 Mpa

E = 3 x 105 Kg/Cm2

Poissons Ratio = = 0.15

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

= 10 x 10 6 / oC
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FACTORS AFFECTING RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN


(Contd..)

Fatigue Behavior of CC (Minors Hypothesis)

Stress Ratio (SR) = Flexural Stress / Flexural Strength

N
= [4.2577 / (SR - .4325)] 3.268
0.45<SR<0.55

Log10 N

= Unlimited for SR < 0.45

= (0.9718 SR) / 0.0828


for SR>0.55

Table No: 6 Allowable Repetitions


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for

JOINTED PLAIN CEMENT


CONCRETE PAVEMENT

Most Popular Rigid pavement Option

Maintenance Costs increases with the


increase in the joint spacing

Maximum joint spacing should be 12.2m

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CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED
CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT

Elimination of Joints

Thickness of CRCP Will Workout to be 70-80%


of the conventional pavement.

Cracks are held tightly by the reinforcement

Punch-outs are the major type of distress

Design equations for JRCP can be used for


CRCP
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Reduced thickness

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PAVEMENT

Concrete is
compression

Thickness is governed by modulus of rupture


which varies with the tensile strength of
concrete

Pre-application of compressive stress reduces


the tensile stresses caused by traffic loads,
decreases the thickness

Less probability of cracking and fewer


transverse joints, less maintenance and longer
life
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weak

in

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Tension,

strong

in

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PAVEMENT

Slab Length Varies from 90 to 232m

Slab Thickness 152mm (Maximum)

Post tension method is Frequently Adopted

More Frequently used for Airport Pavements,


Saving in Thickness

Thickness of Pre-stressed Highway Pavement


will be Sufficient Enough to Provide Cover for
the Pre-stressing Steel

Still in the Experimental Stage

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RIGID HIGHWAY PAVEMENT DESIGN

Guidelines for the Design of Plain Jointed


Rigid Pavements for Highways IRC: 58 2002

AASHTO Method, 1993

PCA Method

ACI Method

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IRC: 58 2002 METHOD OF


RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN

Guidelines cover the design of Plain


Jointed cement concrete pavements with
or without dowels

Applicable to roads having a daily


commercial traffic (vehicles with laden
weight exceeding 3T) of over 150

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FEATURES OF IRC: 58 - 2002

Computation of Flexural stress due to


placement of single and tandem axle
loads along the edge

Introduction of the cumulative fatigue


damage approach in the design

Revision of criteria for design of dowel


bars
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CRITICAL STRESS CONDITION

Additive Flexural Stresses due to Load and


Temperature Differentials Critical

Tandem Axle Causes 20% lesser load than single


axles Super Position of Negative Bending
Moment due to one dual wheel over the other

Average Spacing of Tandem Axles 1.31m

Curling - Top Convex during Day and Top Concave


during the Night

Corner Discontinuous in 2 Direction More


Critical

Corner Temp. Stress is Negligible

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CRITICAL STRESS CONDITION

Temp Stresses will be Maximum during the day


when there is maximum temp. differential at
Edge and Interior Regions

Night Critical for Corner Region Corners


tending to warp up

Corner Critical No Dowel Bars are Provided

Corner Critical Aggregate Interlock is Absent

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CALCULATION OF STRESSES

EDGE STRESSES
Due to Load: Westergaards and Pickett & Rays
Chart Techniques IITRIGID.EXE
Appendix 1 for Different Single and Tandem Axle
Loads (Stresses have been Given)
Westergaards Equation Modified by Teller and
Sutherland are not Applicable for Different Wheel
Configurations and hence not Useful
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CALCULATION OF STRESSES

EDGE STRESS
Due to Temperature: Westergaards Equation
using Bradburys Equation
Ste = E t C / 2.0
Figure 2 for Bradburys Coefficient as well as
Stress Values

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CALCULATION OF STRESSES

CORNER STRESS
Westergaard's Equation (Modified by Kelly)
Scl = (3P/h2) * { 1 (a 2/l)1.2} (kg/Cm2)
a = Radius of Equivalent Circular Contact
Area (Cm)
l = Radius of Relative Stiffness (Cm)
= [(Eh3)/{12(1-2)K}] 0.25

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STRESS RATIO AND FATIGUE ANALYSIS

Cumulative Fatigue Damage for


Different Axle Loads shall be Less than
1.0

Procedure for Cumulative Fatigue


Damage is Given in Appendix 2 of
IRC 58 - 2002

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EROSION CONSIDERATION
& HARD SHOULDERS

Multi Axle Vehicles Usually Cause Erosion at the


Bottom of the Pavement

To Prevent, Paved Shoulder Shall be Extended by


1.5m beyond the Pavement

DLC Shall be Extended by 40 to 50 Cm towards the


Shoulder

In addition, Full Depth Bituminous Shoulder or tied


CC Shoulder Shall be Constructed to Protect
Pavement Edge

Anchor Beam and Terminal Slab

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IRC: 58 2002 DESIGN PROCEDURE

Stipulate design values for the various


parameters

Decide types and spacing between joints

Select a trial
pavement slab

Compute the repetitions of axle loads of


different magnitudes during the design
period
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design

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thickness

of

IRC: 58 2002 DESIGN PROCEDURE

Calculate the stresses due to single and


tandem axle loads and determine the
cumulative fatigue damage (CFD)

If the CFD is more than 1.0, select a higher


thickness and repeat the above steps

Compute the temperature stress at the


edge and if the sum of the temperature
stress and the flexural stress due to the
highest wheel load is greater than the
modulus of rupture, select higher
thickness and redesign
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IRC: 58 2002 DESIGN PROCEDURE

Design the thickness on the basis of


corner stress if no dowel is provided
and there is no load transfer due to lack
of aggregate interlocking

Design Dowel and Tie Bars if necessary

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ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002


DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT
EXAMPLE

Two Lane Two Way Highway


Location: Karnataka State
Total Two Way Traffic = 3000 CVPD
Flexural Strength of Concrete = 45 Kg/Cm2
Effective K with DLC = 8 Kg / Cm2
E of Concrete = 3 x 105 Kg / Cm2

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ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002


DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Poissons Ratio of Concrete = 0.15


Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of
Concrete = 10x10-6/0c
Tire Pressure = 8 Kg/Cm2
Rate of Traffic Growth = 0.075
Spacing of Contraction Joints = 4.5m
Width of the Slab = 3.5m

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ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002


DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT
Single Axle Loads

Tandem Axle Loads

Axle Load
Class (t)

% of Axle
Loads

Axle Load
Class (t)

% of Axle
Loads

19-21
17-19
15-17
13-15
11-13
9-11
<9
Total

0.6
1.5
4.8
10.8
22.0
23.3
30.0
93.0

34-38
30-34
26-30
22-26
18-22
14-18
<14
Total

0.3
0.3
0.6
1.8
1.5
0.5
2.0
7.0

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ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002


DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Present Traffic = 3000 CVD

Design Life = 20 Years

r = 0.075

Cumulative Repetitions
= 3000*365*[{(1.075)20 1}/0.075]
= 47,418,626 CV

Design Traffic = 0.25 * 47,418,626


= 11,854,657 CV

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ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002


DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Single Axle Loads

Tandem Axle Loads

Load in
Tonnes

Expected
Repetitions

Load in
Tonnes

Expected
Repetitions

20

71127

36

35564

18

177820

32

35564

16

569023

28

71128

14

1280303

24

213384

12

2608024

20

177820

10

2762135

16

59273

<10

3556397

<16

237093

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ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002


DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Trial Thickness = 32 Cm

Sub-grade Modulus = 8 Kg/Cm3

Design Period = 20 Years

Modulus of Rupture = 45 Kg/Cm2

Safety Factor = 1.2

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Axle Load
(t)

AL * 1.2

Stress
(Kg/Cm2)

Stress
Ratio

Expected
Repetitions
(n)

Fatigue
Life N

Fatigue Life
Consumed

Ratio (5/6)

Single Axle
20
18
16

24.0
21.6
19.2

25.19
22.98
20.73

14

16.8

18.45

36
32

43.2
38.4

20.07
18.40

0.56
0.51
0.46

71127
177820
569023

0.41 128030
Tandem Axle
0.45
0.40

35560
35560

Cumulative Fatigue Life Consumed


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94100
0.76
485000
0.37
14330000 0.04
Infinite

0.00

62800000 0.0006
Infinite
0

1.1706

Trial Thickness = 33 Cm
Axle
Load (t)

AL *
1.2

Stress
(Kg/Cm2)

Stress
Ratio

Expected
Repetitions(n)

Fatigue Life
(N)

Fatigue Life
Consumed

Ratio (5/6)

Single Axle
20

24.0

24.10

0.53

71127

216000

0.33

18

21.6

21.98

0.49

177820

1290000

0.14

16

19.2

19.98

0.44

569023

Infinity

0.00

14

16.8

17.64

0.39

128030

Infinity

0.00

Infinity

0.00

Tandem Axle
36

43.2

19.38

0.43

35560

Cumulative Fatigue Life Consumed


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0.47

ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002


DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Check for Temperature Stress


Edge Warping Stress (Ste) = E t C / 2.0
= 17.3 Kg/Cm2
( For L = 450Cm, B = 350 Cm, l = 103.5, L/l = 4.4 & C = 0.55 from
Fig. 2 & Temp. Diff. = 21oC )
Total of Load (Highest) and Warping Stress = 24.10 + 17.3
= 41.4 Kg/Cm2
< 45 Kg/Cm2 Hence Safe

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ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002


DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Check for Corner Stress due to Load


Scl = (3P/h2) * { 1 (a 2/l)1.2}
98 Percentile Axle Load is 16 Tonnes
The Wheel Load = 8 Tonnes
Radius of Relative Stiffness( l ) = 103.5 Cm

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ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002


DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Radius of Contact of Wheel (a)


(Single Axle Dual Wheel)
a = [0.8521 * (P)/(q*)* (S/ )*{(P) / 0.5227*q}0.5]0.5

P = Load
S = C/c Distance between Two Tires
q = Tire Pressure
a = 26.51 Cm
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ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002


DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Corner Stress due to Load = 15.52 Kg/Cm2

Flex. Strength of Concrete = 45 Kg/Cm2


Hence the Proposed thickness of 33 Cm is safe
since Corner Stress Due to Load is Less than
the Flexural strength of Concrete

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AASHTO DESIGN PROCEDURE

Design of Slab Thickness

Estimate future Traffic

Reliability ( R )

Overall Standard Deviation (So)

Design Serviceability Loss

Concrete Elastic Modulus (Ec)

Concrete Modulus of Rupture (Sc)

Load Transfer Coefficient (J)

Drainage Coefficient ( Cd)

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AASHTO DESIGN PROCEDURE

Reliability
Accounts for the changes in variation in both traffic prediction and
performance prediction

Functional
Classification

Recommended Levels of Reliability


Urban

Rural

85 - 99.9

80 99.9

Principal Arterials

80 99

75 - 95

Collectors

80 95

75 - 95

Local

50 80

50 - 80

Interstate and other


Freeways

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AASHTO DESIGN PROCEDURE

Overall Standard Deviation ( So)


Rigid Pavement 0.35

Design Serviceability Loss

PSI Ranges from 5 (Perfect road) to 0


(Impossible Road)

Index of 2.5 for Design of Major Roads and 2.0


for Less Important Roads

Initial Serviceability for Rigid Pavements 4.5

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AASHTO DESIGN PROCEDURE

Concrete Elastic Modulus

Concrete Modulus of Rupture

Sc = Sc + Z (SDs)
Where Sc = Estimated mean value for PCC
modulus of rupture (psi)

Sc = Construction specification on concrete


modulus of rupture

SDs = Estimated standard deviation of concrete


modulus of rupture

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AASHTO DESIGN PROCEDURE

Z = Standard normal variate


0.841 for PS = 20%
1.037 for PS = 15%
1.282 for PS = 10%
1.645 for PS = 5%
2.327 for PS = 1%

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AASHTO DESIGN PROCEDURE

Load Transfer coefficient (J)

Factor accounts for the ability of the


concrete pavement to transfer load
across joints

J = 3.2 for JCP and JRCP, with some type


of load transfer device

J = 3.8 to 4.4 when there is no load


transfer device

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PCA DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENTS

Flexural strength of Concrete (Modulus of


Rupture MR)

Strength of the subgrade or subgrade and


subbase combination (K)

The weights, frequencies and types of truck axles


loads that the pavement will carry

Design period, which in this and other pavement


design procedures is usually taken at 20 years,
but may be more or less

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PCA DESIGN PROCEDURE

Type of Joint and Shoulder

Concrete Flexural strength (MR) at 28 days

K value of the subgrade or subgrade and


subbase combination

Load safety factor (LSF)

Axle load distribution

Expected number of repetitions


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PCA DESIGN PROCEDURE

Fatigue analysis to control fatigue cracking


and erosion analysis to control foundation
and shoulder erosion, pumping, and faulting

Fatigue analysis will usually control the


design of light traffic pavements and medium
traffic pavements with doweled joints

Erosion analysis will usually control the


design of medium and heavy traffic
pavements with undoweled joints and heavy
traffic with doweled joints

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PCA DESIGN PROCEDURE

For pavements carrying normal mix of truck types,


single-axle loads are usually more severe in the
fatigue analysis, and tandem axle loads are more
severe in the erosion analysis

Fatigue Analysis

Assume Trial Thickness and Equivalent Stress


Factor depending on the Trial Thickness and K
Value

Estimate the Expected and Allowable Repetitions

The Ratio of Expected to Allowed Should Not be


More than 100%

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PCA DESIGN PROCEDURE

Erosion Analysis

Assume trial thickness and the equivalent


stress factor depending on the trial
thickness and k value

Estimate the
repetitions

The ratio of expected to allowed should not


be more than 100%

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expected

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and

allowable

THANK YOU

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