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# DESIGN OF RIGID

HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS

## Prof. V Vinayaka Ram, Ph.D.,

Department of Civil Engineering
Birla Institute of Technology, Pilani Hyderabad Campus

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Pavements

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Vehicle

Pavement

Environment

Speed

Axle forces

GVW

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## FACTORS AFFECTING RIGID

PAVEMENT DESIGN

Single Axle 10.2t, Tandem 19t & Tridem Axle 24t

considered

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## FACTORS AFFECTING RIGID

PAVEMENT DESIGN (Contd..)

## Unpredicted Heavy Truck Movements

Load Safety Factor (1.2, 1.1 & 1.0 for three

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DESIGN (Contd..)

## Fatigue 25% of Two-Lane Two-Way Commercial

Vehicles (Design Traffic)
Four or Multi Lane Highways 25% of Commercial
Vehicles in the Predominant
Direction

## CSA = [365 * A * {(1+r)n 1}] / r

Temperature Differential =
Thermal Diffusibility of CC,
Velocity etc.)

## Table 1 - IRC 58 2002 (Six Different Regions in India)

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Losses Due to Wind

## Modulus of Sub-grade Reaction (K) Pressure

per Unit Deflection of Foundation @ Limiting
Deflection

## 125 Micron thick Polythene Layer between CC

and DLC Layers to Reduce Interlayer Friction

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## FACTORS AFFECTING RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN

(Contd..)

Characteristics of Concrete

Design Strength

S
=

=
Target Ave. Flexural Strength @ 28 days
S + Za

## Characteristic Flexural Strength @ 28 Days

Za =
Tolerance Factor for Desired Confidence
Limits (Table 5 IRC 58)

=
Expected Standard Deviation of Field
Samples (IS 456 2000)
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(Contd..)

## Flexural Strength 4.5 Mpa

E = 3 x 105 Kg/Cm2

= 10 x 10 6 / oC
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(Contd..)

## Stress Ratio (SR) = Flexural Stress / Flexural Strength

N
= [4.2577 / (SR - .4325)] 3.268
0.45<SR<0.55

Log10 N

for SR>0.55

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for

## JOINTED PLAIN CEMENT

CONCRETE PAVEMENT

## Maintenance Costs increases with the

increase in the joint spacing

## Maximum joint spacing should be 12.2m

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CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED
CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT

Elimination of Joints

## Thickness of CRCP Will Workout to be 70-80%

of the conventional pavement.

## Design equations for JRCP can be used for

CRCP
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Reduced thickness

Concrete is
compression

## Thickness is governed by modulus of rupture

which varies with the tensile strength of
concrete

## Pre-application of compressive stress reduces

the tensile stresses caused by traffic loads,
decreases the thickness

## Less probability of cracking and fewer

transverse joints, less maintenance and longer
life
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weak

in

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Tension,

strong

in

## More Frequently used for Airport Pavements,

Saving in Thickness

## Thickness of Pre-stressed Highway Pavement

will be Sufficient Enough to Provide Cover for
the Pre-stressing Steel

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## Guidelines for the Design of Plain Jointed

Rigid Pavements for Highways IRC: 58 2002

PCA Method

ACI Method

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## IRC: 58 2002 METHOD OF

RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN

## Guidelines cover the design of Plain

Jointed cement concrete pavements with
or without dowels

## Applicable to roads having a daily

weight exceeding 3T) of over 150

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## Computation of Flexural stress due to

placement of single and tandem axle

## Introduction of the cumulative fatigue

damage approach in the design

bars
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## CRITICAL STRESS CONDITION

Temperature Differentials Critical

## Tandem Axle Causes 20% lesser load than single

axles Super Position of Negative Bending
Moment due to one dual wheel over the other

during the Night

Critical

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## Temp Stresses will be Maximum during the day

when there is maximum temp. differential at
Edge and Interior Regions

## Night Critical for Corner Region Corners

tending to warp up

## Corner Critical Aggregate Interlock is Absent

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CALCULATION OF STRESSES

EDGE STRESSES
Due to Load: Westergaards and Pickett & Rays
Chart Techniques IITRIGID.EXE
Appendix 1 for Different Single and Tandem Axle
Westergaards Equation Modified by Teller and
Sutherland are not Applicable for Different Wheel
Configurations and hence not Useful
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CALCULATION OF STRESSES

EDGE STRESS
Due to Temperature: Westergaards Equation
Ste = E t C / 2.0
Figure 2 for Bradburys Coefficient as well as
Stress Values

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CALCULATION OF STRESSES

CORNER STRESS
Westergaard's Equation (Modified by Kelly)
Scl = (3P/h2) * { 1 (a 2/l)1.2} (kg/Cm2)
a = Radius of Equivalent Circular Contact
Area (Cm)
l = Radius of Relative Stiffness (Cm)
= [(Eh3)/{12(1-2)K}] 0.25

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## Cumulative Fatigue Damage for

Different Axle Loads shall be Less than
1.0

## Procedure for Cumulative Fatigue

Damage is Given in Appendix 2 of
IRC 58 - 2002

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EROSION CONSIDERATION
& HARD SHOULDERS

## Multi Axle Vehicles Usually Cause Erosion at the

Bottom of the Pavement

## To Prevent, Paved Shoulder Shall be Extended by

1.5m beyond the Pavement

Shoulder

## In addition, Full Depth Bituminous Shoulder or tied

CC Shoulder Shall be Constructed to Protect
Pavement Edge

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parameters

Select a trial
pavement slab

## Compute the repetitions of axle loads of

different magnitudes during the design
period
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design

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thickness

of

## Calculate the stresses due to single and

tandem axle loads and determine the
cumulative fatigue damage (CFD)

## If the CFD is more than 1.0, select a higher

thickness and repeat the above steps

## Compute the temperature stress at the

edge and if the sum of the temperature
stress and the flexural stress due to the
highest wheel load is greater than the
modulus of rupture, select higher
thickness and redesign
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## Design the thickness on the basis of

corner stress if no dowel is provided
and there is no load transfer due to lack
of aggregate interlocking

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## ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT
EXAMPLE

## Two Lane Two Way Highway

Location: Karnataka State
Total Two Way Traffic = 3000 CVPD
Flexural Strength of Concrete = 45 Kg/Cm2
Effective K with DLC = 8 Kg / Cm2
E of Concrete = 3 x 105 Kg / Cm2

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## ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

## Poissons Ratio of Concrete = 0.15

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of
Concrete = 10x10-6/0c
Tire Pressure = 8 Kg/Cm2
Rate of Traffic Growth = 0.075
Spacing of Contraction Joints = 4.5m
Width of the Slab = 3.5m

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## ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Class (t)

% of Axle

Class (t)

% of Axle

19-21
17-19
15-17
13-15
11-13
9-11
<9
Total

0.6
1.5
4.8
10.8
22.0
23.3
30.0
93.0

34-38
30-34
26-30
22-26
18-22
14-18
<14
Total

0.3
0.3
0.6
1.8
1.5
0.5
2.0
7.0

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## ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

## Design Life = 20 Years

r = 0.075

Cumulative Repetitions
= 3000*365*[{(1.075)20 1}/0.075]
= 47,418,626 CV

= 11,854,657 CV

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## ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Tonnes

Expected
Repetitions

Tonnes

Expected
Repetitions

20

71127

36

35564

18

177820

32

35564

16

569023

28

71128

14

1280303

24

213384

12

2608024

20

177820

10

2762135

16

59273

<10

3556397

<16

237093

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## ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Trial Thickness = 32 Cm

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(t)

AL * 1.2

Stress
(Kg/Cm2)

Stress
Ratio

Expected
Repetitions
(n)

Fatigue
Life N

Fatigue Life
Consumed

Ratio (5/6)

Single Axle
20
18
16

24.0
21.6
19.2

25.19
22.98
20.73

14

16.8

18.45

36
32

43.2
38.4

20.07
18.40

0.56
0.51
0.46

71127
177820
569023

0.41 128030
Tandem Axle
0.45
0.40

35560
35560

## Cumulative Fatigue Life Consumed

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94100
0.76
485000
0.37
14330000 0.04
Infinite

0.00

62800000 0.0006
Infinite
0

1.1706

Trial Thickness = 33 Cm
Axle

AL *
1.2

Stress
(Kg/Cm2)

Stress
Ratio

Expected
Repetitions(n)

Fatigue Life
(N)

Fatigue Life
Consumed

Ratio (5/6)

Single Axle
20

24.0

24.10

0.53

71127

216000

0.33

18

21.6

21.98

0.49

177820

1290000

0.14

16

19.2

19.98

0.44

569023

Infinity

0.00

14

16.8

17.64

0.39

128030

Infinity

0.00

Infinity

0.00

Tandem Axle
36

43.2

19.38

0.43

35560

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0.47

## ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

## Check for Temperature Stress

Edge Warping Stress (Ste) = E t C / 2.0
= 17.3 Kg/Cm2
( For L = 450Cm, B = 350 Cm, l = 103.5, L/l = 4.4 & C = 0.55 from
Fig. 2 & Temp. Diff. = 21oC )
Total of Load (Highest) and Warping Stress = 24.10 + 17.3
= 41.4 Kg/Cm2
< 45 Kg/Cm2 Hence Safe

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## ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

## Check for Corner Stress due to Load

Scl = (3P/h2) * { 1 (a 2/l)1.2}
98 Percentile Axle Load is 16 Tonnes
The Wheel Load = 8 Tonnes
Radius of Relative Stiffness( l ) = 103.5 Cm

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## ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

## Radius of Contact of Wheel (a)

(Single Axle Dual Wheel)
a = [0.8521 * (P)/(q*)* (S/ )*{(P) / 0.5227*q}0.5]0.5

S = C/c Distance between Two Tires
q = Tire Pressure
a = 26.51 Cm
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## ILLUSTRATION OF IRC 58-2002

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

## Flex. Strength of Concrete = 45 Kg/Cm2

Hence the Proposed thickness of 33 Cm is safe
since Corner Stress Due to Load is Less than
the Flexural strength of Concrete

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## Estimate future Traffic

Reliability ( R )

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## AASHTO DESIGN PROCEDURE

Reliability
Accounts for the changes in variation in both traffic prediction and
performance prediction

Functional
Classification

## Recommended Levels of Reliability

Urban

Rural

85 - 99.9

80 99.9

Principal Arterials

80 99

75 - 95

Collectors

80 95

75 - 95

Local

50 80

50 - 80

Freeways

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## Overall Standard Deviation ( So)

Rigid Pavement 0.35

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## Concrete Modulus of Rupture

Sc = Sc + Z (SDs)
Where Sc = Estimated mean value for PCC
modulus of rupture (psi)

## Sc = Construction specification on concrete

modulus of rupture

## SDs = Estimated standard deviation of concrete

modulus of rupture

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## Z = Standard normal variate

0.841 for PS = 20%
1.037 for PS = 15%
1.282 for PS = 10%
1.645 for PS = 5%
2.327 for PS = 1%

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across joints

transfer device

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## Flexural strength of Concrete (Modulus of

Rupture MR)

subbase combination (K)

## The weights, frequencies and types of truck axles

loads that the pavement will carry

## Design period, which in this and other pavement

design procedures is usually taken at 20 years,
but may be more or less

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## Concrete Flexural strength (MR) at 28 days

subbase combination

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## Fatigue analysis to control fatigue cracking

and erosion analysis to control foundation
and shoulder erosion, pumping, and faulting

## Fatigue analysis will usually control the

design of light traffic pavements and medium
traffic pavements with doweled joints

## Erosion analysis will usually control the

design of medium and heavy traffic
pavements with undoweled joints and heavy
traffic with doweled joints

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## For pavements carrying normal mix of truck types,

single-axle loads are usually more severe in the
fatigue analysis, and tandem axle loads are more
severe in the erosion analysis

Fatigue Analysis

## Assume Trial Thickness and Equivalent Stress

Factor depending on the Trial Thickness and K
Value

More than 100%

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Erosion Analysis

## Assume trial thickness and the equivalent

stress factor depending on the trial
thickness and k value

Estimate the
repetitions

## The ratio of expected to allowed should not

be more than 100%

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expected

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and

allowable

THANK YOU

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