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HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS

Department of Civil Engineering

Birla Institute of Technology, Pilani Hyderabad Campus

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

Pavements

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BITS Pilani

Vehicle

Pavement

Environment

Speed

Axle forces

GVW

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BITS Pilani

PAVEMENT DESIGN

Axle/Wheel Loads

Single Axle 10.2t, Tandem 19t & Tridem Axle 24t

Load Repetitions

considered

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BITS Pilani

PAVEMENT DESIGN (Contd..)

Load Safety Factor (1.2, 1.1 & 1.0 for three

hierarchies of roads)

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BITS Pilani

DESIGN (Contd..)

Vehicles (Design Traffic)

Four or Multi Lane Highways 25% of Commercial

Vehicles in the Predominant

Direction

Temperature Differential =

Thermal Diffusibility of CC,

Velocity etc.)

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BITS Pilani

Losses Due to Wind

per Unit Deflection of Foundation @ Limiting

Deflection

and DLC Layers to Reduce Interlayer Friction

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BITS Pilani

(Contd..)

Characteristics of Concrete

Design Strength

S

=

=

Target Ave. Flexural Strength @ 28 days

S + Za

Za =

Tolerance Factor for Desired Confidence

Limits (Table 5 IRC 58)

=

Expected Standard Deviation of Field

Samples (IS 456 2000)

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BITS Pilani

(Contd..)

E = 3 x 105 Kg/Cm2

= 10 x 10 6 / oC

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BITS Pilani

(Contd..)

N

= [4.2577 / (SR - .4325)] 3.268

0.45<SR<0.55

Log10 N

for SR>0.55

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BITS Pilani

for

CONCRETE PAVEMENT

increase in the joint spacing

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BITS Pilani

CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED

CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT

Elimination of Joints

of the conventional pavement.

CRCP

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BITS Pilani

Reduced thickness

Concrete is

compression

which varies with the tensile strength of

concrete

the tensile stresses caused by traffic loads,

decreases the thickness

transverse joints, less maintenance and longer

life

09/30/16 07:03

weak

in

BITS Pilani

Tension,

strong

in

Saving in Thickness

will be Sufficient Enough to Provide Cover for

the Pre-stressing Steel

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BITS Pilani

Rigid Pavements for Highways IRC: 58 2002

PCA Method

ACI Method

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BITS Pilani

RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN

Jointed cement concrete pavements with

or without dowels

commercial traffic (vehicles with laden

weight exceeding 3T) of over 150

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BITS Pilani

placement of single and tandem axle

loads along the edge

damage approach in the design

bars

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BITS Pilani

Temperature Differentials Critical

axles Super Position of Negative Bending

Moment due to one dual wheel over the other

during the Night

Critical

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BITS Pilani

when there is maximum temp. differential at

Edge and Interior Regions

tending to warp up

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BITS Pilani

CALCULATION OF STRESSES

EDGE STRESSES

Due to Load: Westergaards and Pickett & Rays

Chart Techniques IITRIGID.EXE

Appendix 1 for Different Single and Tandem Axle

Loads (Stresses have been Given)

Westergaards Equation Modified by Teller and

Sutherland are not Applicable for Different Wheel

Configurations and hence not Useful

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BITS Pilani

CALCULATION OF STRESSES

EDGE STRESS

Due to Temperature: Westergaards Equation

using Bradburys Equation

Ste = E t C / 2.0

Figure 2 for Bradburys Coefficient as well as

Stress Values

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

CALCULATION OF STRESSES

CORNER STRESS

Westergaard's Equation (Modified by Kelly)

Scl = (3P/h2) * { 1 (a 2/l)1.2} (kg/Cm2)

a = Radius of Equivalent Circular Contact

Area (Cm)

l = Radius of Relative Stiffness (Cm)

= [(Eh3)/{12(1-2)K}] 0.25

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BITS Pilani

Different Axle Loads shall be Less than

1.0

Damage is Given in Appendix 2 of

IRC 58 - 2002

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BITS Pilani

EROSION CONSIDERATION

& HARD SHOULDERS

Bottom of the Pavement

1.5m beyond the Pavement

Shoulder

CC Shoulder Shall be Constructed to Protect

Pavement Edge

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BITS Pilani

parameters

Select a trial

pavement slab

different magnitudes during the design

period

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design

BITS Pilani

thickness

of

tandem axle loads and determine the

cumulative fatigue damage (CFD)

thickness and repeat the above steps

edge and if the sum of the temperature

stress and the flexural stress due to the

highest wheel load is greater than the

modulus of rupture, select higher

thickness and redesign

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BITS Pilani

corner stress if no dowel is provided

and there is no load transfer due to lack

of aggregate interlocking

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BITS Pilani

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

EXAMPLE

Location: Karnataka State

Total Two Way Traffic = 3000 CVPD

Flexural Strength of Concrete = 45 Kg/Cm2

Effective K with DLC = 8 Kg / Cm2

E of Concrete = 3 x 105 Kg / Cm2

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of

Concrete = 10x10-6/0c

Tire Pressure = 8 Kg/Cm2

Rate of Traffic Growth = 0.075

Spacing of Contraction Joints = 4.5m

Width of the Slab = 3.5m

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Single Axle Loads

Axle Load

Class (t)

% of Axle

Loads

Axle Load

Class (t)

% of Axle

Loads

19-21

17-19

15-17

13-15

11-13

9-11

<9

Total

0.6

1.5

4.8

10.8

22.0

23.3

30.0

93.0

34-38

30-34

26-30

22-26

18-22

14-18

<14

Total

0.3

0.3

0.6

1.8

1.5

0.5

2.0

7.0

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

r = 0.075

Cumulative Repetitions

= 3000*365*[{(1.075)20 1}/0.075]

= 47,418,626 CV

= 11,854,657 CV

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Load in

Tonnes

Expected

Repetitions

Load in

Tonnes

Expected

Repetitions

20

71127

36

35564

18

177820

32

35564

16

569023

28

71128

14

1280303

24

213384

12

2608024

20

177820

10

2762135

16

59273

<10

3556397

<16

237093

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Trial Thickness = 32 Cm

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BITS Pilani

Axle Load

(t)

AL * 1.2

Stress

(Kg/Cm2)

Stress

Ratio

Expected

Repetitions

(n)

Fatigue

Life N

Fatigue Life

Consumed

Ratio (5/6)

Single Axle

20

18

16

24.0

21.6

19.2

25.19

22.98

20.73

14

16.8

18.45

36

32

43.2

38.4

20.07

18.40

0.56

0.51

0.46

71127

177820

569023

0.41 128030

Tandem Axle

0.45

0.40

35560

35560

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

94100

0.76

485000

0.37

14330000 0.04

Infinite

0.00

62800000 0.0006

Infinite

0

1.1706

Trial Thickness = 33 Cm

Axle

Load (t)

AL *

1.2

Stress

(Kg/Cm2)

Stress

Ratio

Expected

Repetitions(n)

Fatigue Life

(N)

Fatigue Life

Consumed

Ratio (5/6)

Single Axle

20

24.0

24.10

0.53

71127

216000

0.33

18

21.6

21.98

0.49

177820

1290000

0.14

16

19.2

19.98

0.44

569023

Infinity

0.00

14

16.8

17.64

0.39

128030

Infinity

0.00

Infinity

0.00

Tandem Axle

36

43.2

19.38

0.43

35560

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

0.47

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Edge Warping Stress (Ste) = E t C / 2.0

= 17.3 Kg/Cm2

( For L = 450Cm, B = 350 Cm, l = 103.5, L/l = 4.4 & C = 0.55 from

Fig. 2 & Temp. Diff. = 21oC )

Total of Load (Highest) and Warping Stress = 24.10 + 17.3

= 41.4 Kg/Cm2

< 45 Kg/Cm2 Hence Safe

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Scl = (3P/h2) * { 1 (a 2/l)1.2}

98 Percentile Axle Load is 16 Tonnes

The Wheel Load = 8 Tonnes

Radius of Relative Stiffness( l ) = 103.5 Cm

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

(Single Axle Dual Wheel)

a = [0.8521 * (P)/(q*)* (S/ )*{(P) / 0.5227*q}0.5]0.5

P = Load

S = C/c Distance between Two Tires

q = Tire Pressure

a = 26.51 Cm

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENT

Hence the Proposed thickness of 33 Cm is safe

since Corner Stress Due to Load is Less than

the Flexural strength of Concrete

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

Reliability ( R )

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

Reliability

Accounts for the changes in variation in both traffic prediction and

performance prediction

Functional

Classification

Urban

Rural

85 - 99.9

80 99.9

Principal Arterials

80 99

75 - 95

Collectors

80 95

75 - 95

Local

50 80

50 - 80

Freeways

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

Rigid Pavement 0.35

(Impossible Road)

for Less Important Roads

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

Sc = Sc + Z (SDs)

Where Sc = Estimated mean value for PCC

modulus of rupture (psi)

modulus of rupture

modulus of rupture

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

0.841 for PS = 20%

1.037 for PS = 15%

1.282 for PS = 10%

1.645 for PS = 5%

2.327 for PS = 1%

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

concrete pavement to transfer load

across joints

of load transfer device

transfer device

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

Rupture MR)

subbase combination (K)

loads that the pavement will carry

design procedures is usually taken at 20 years,

but may be more or less

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

subbase combination

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

and erosion analysis to control foundation

and shoulder erosion, pumping, and faulting

design of light traffic pavements and medium

traffic pavements with doweled joints

design of medium and heavy traffic

pavements with undoweled joints and heavy

traffic with doweled joints

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

single-axle loads are usually more severe in the

fatigue analysis, and tandem axle loads are more

severe in the erosion analysis

Fatigue Analysis

Factor depending on the Trial Thickness and K

Value

More than 100%

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

Erosion Analysis

stress factor depending on the trial

thickness and k value

Estimate the

repetitions

be more than 100%

09/30/16 07:03

expected

BITS Pilani

and

allowable

THANK YOU

09/30/16 07:03

BITS Pilani

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