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Research Ethic: Responsible

Conduct

Cloning

Cloning is the production of one or more
organisms genetically identical to the
“parent” that donated the cell.

This is also called organismal cloning.

Other type of cloning is gene/cell cloning; the
division of an asexually reproducing cell into a
collection of genetically identical cells.

First attempted over 50 years ago.

Cloning

Cloning is the production of one or more
organisms genetically identical to the
“parent” that donated the cell.

This is also called organismal cloning.

Other type of cloning is gene/cell cloning; the
division of an asexually reproducing cell into a
collection of genetically identical cells.

First attempted over 50 years ago.

History


1952
1953

Northern leopard frogs cloned.
Structure of DNA discovered.

1978 Louise, the first child
conceived through in vitro
fertilization, was born.
1993 Human embryos were first
cloned (artificial embryo twinning)
July 5, 1996 Dolly was born.

Method of Cloning

Cloning by fission
Blastocyst division
Blastomere Separation

Cloning by fusion

(e.use of cloning to grow a living person who shares the DNA of the progenitor.cloning process to produce embryonic stem cells. tissues or whole organs for transplantation.  Reproductive cloning .Cloning (cont) Cloning can be divided into therapeutic and reproductive.  Therapeutic cloning .g Dolly the sheep) .

Dolly – the first mammal cloned using mature cell    Dolly the Lamb in 1996 Method: Nuclear transfer Organization: Roslin Institute at UK and PPL Therapeutics .

Example of cloning   Cumulina the Mouse in 1998 Organization: University of Hawaii Photo from Ming Pao 28th December 2002 .

Example of cloning   Cattle in 1998 Organization : Kinki University at Japan Photo from Ming Pao 28th December 2002 .

Alexis. Carrel and Dotcom the Pigs in 2000 Organization: PPL Therapeutics of UK Photo from Ming Pao 28th December 2002 . Christa.Example of cloning   Mille.

Example of cloning   Carbon Copy the Cat in 2002 Organization: Texas A & M University. USA Photo from Ming Pao 23th January 2003 .

6949 . 2003 Organization: A research laboratory in Italy Photo from Nature No.Example of cloning   Generation of Prometea.

2007.com/gleaner/20050806/mind/mind3.html  . Korea  Cloning of rhesus monkey. USA  Cloning of dog. 2005. Oregon. http://jamaica-gleaner.html USA http://www.pbs.Example of cloning Cloning of donkey. 2004.org/newshour/bb/science/july-dec07/stemcells_11-15.

Cloning of endangered animal   Noah the Gaur (an endangered species) in 2000 Organization: Advanced Cell Technology. USA Photo from Advanced Cell Technology (www.com) .advancedcell.

000 years ago From Mingpao 8/8/2003 .Cloning of endangered animal   Cloning of woolly Mammoth Extinct 10.

Cloning of endangered animal   Cloning of a cow containing mad cow disease resistant gene In Shangdong. China From Mingpao 28/4/2006 .

Concerns in animal cloning      Technology complicated Survival rate of cloned embryos low Overweighing of calves at birth Breeders may want to keep their animal unique Breeders may want to create better offspring .

lung and immune system • Might have genetic disorder .Health of clones • Poor development of heart.

Dolly gave birth to a female lamb in 1998. but Dolly later died of premature aging in 2003. .

Possible Benefit of Cloning .

Infertile Patients  It allows infertile patients to have their own biological child (current infertility treatment are only about 10% effective and very costly both monetarily and mentally on the parents)  Allows parents to have offspring that are free of genetic disease… .

breast augmentations. or cartilage that matches the patients tissues  This would prevent problems with silicone leaking or immune disease associated with plastic surgery.Cosmetic Surgery  Plastic surgeries. connective tissue. reconstructive surgeries. fat. .  Doctors will be able to manufacture bones.

 Also. clones would be more successful than current transplants because they are created from the patient’s body and would be free of immune disease reactions.New Possibilities for Organ Transplants  Organs.  These. . immuno-suppressed animals can harvest organs for more options. could be cloned. such as livers and kidneys.

Is Cloning Ethical? Yes or No? What do you think? .

Aspects of Ethics Nonmaleficence (Doing No Harm) Beneficence (Doing Good) Autonomy Justice Formal .

Does Cloning Maintain Non-Maleficence? Risk factors involved Mother/Surrogate. even Clone High percentage of animal clones have not implanted or gestated due to genetic abnormalities Reports of congenital malformation To date 5% of cloned animals live births .

Cloning is not medically necessary. Cloning could not be delivered in an equitable manner Billings has also said that stem cell therapies have been “wildly oversold” . says that Cloning is not safe .Paul Billings. co-founder of GeneSage.

Oldest clone to date lived for 5 years Premature aging Immuno-failures Copying an aged cell (Dolly) Dolly developed arthritis very early on Cells being cloned may develop genetic mutations very early on .

Recessive traits could be phased out Recessive traits critical to evolution Allele extinction can occur Lack of alleles mean less diversity .

physical attributes.Does cloning maintain Beneficence Improve the quality of life Can avoid defects that occur naturally Preserve and perpetuate good genes like intelligence. and physical skills .

Allows infertile couples to have children Also gives same sex couples ability to have children In both cases the offspring can have traits from each parent .

Ideal transplant donors for terminally ill Guaranteed match for specific blood type and DNA match Would ensure organs won’t be rejected Could replace a loved one who died prematurely .

living or dead to make a clone They would be property in most cases Expectations to live up to .Autonomy of Cloning Does the clone consent to exist They could be used and abused DNA could be used without consent.

they’re created. genetically altered race vs. property Billings says we need to work to better the situation of the poor so that access to therapies is improved . cloning would only be available to them Superior. natural race Clone won’t stand next to humans as equal.Justice Formal Cloning is very expensive Rich would benefit. normal.

 Affront to human dignity Offspring from cloning should stand equally beside their progenitors. especially human cloning allows a form of eugenics in which organism with desirable genetic traits are cloned. Hence. other traits to decline.  Eugenics Cloning. leading to reduced diversity. .Other ethical concerns  Safety Cloning is currently an inefficient and unsafe procedure.

seeds and microorganisms. .  Agricultural and biological engineering are evolving fields that integrate the principles of biological sciences and genetic engineering and use them to create.Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)  GMO acquired by artificial means one or more genes from another species or even from another variety of the same species. improve or modify plants.

Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering involves manipulating DNA molecules DNA from one species is spliced into the DNA of another species  Called: Recombinant DNA Genetically Engineered organisms are called:  Genetically Modified  Transgenic .

Milestones in Food Biotechnology 1953: Structure of DNA discovered 1973: First gene cloned  in microbes 1977: Asilomar Conference in USA  Recombinant DNA safety  Regulation  Risk assessment  Containment .

S.Milestones in Food Biotechnology 1990: Recombinant Chymosin Approved by FDA  Enzyme for cheese making  Originally from calf stomach  Bovine gene expressed in GRAS microbes  In 80% of U. cheese  “Vegetarian” cheese in England .

.Milestones in Food Biotechnology Some salmon have been modified by addition of a more active salmon growth hormone gene.

 GM crops are widespread in the US. Argentina and brazil. . but crop plants. Majority of the GM organisms that contribute to our food supply are not animals.

Other Products from Genetically Engineered Microbes Food enzymes  Bread  HFCS Sweeteners Amino acids Peptides  Nutrasweet Flavors Organic acids Polysaccharides Vitamins .

Milestones in Food Biotechnology 1994: FDA approves “Flavr Savr” Tomato  Prolonged shelf life  Improved quality  Voluntarily labeled .

Other Genetically Engineered Plants Agronomic traits  BT Corn  Roundup Ready Soy  Disease Resistance Food quality Nutrition Metabolic products Vaccines .

Bt Corn Natural insecticide from Bacillus thuringiensis Non-toxic to humans Target insect: corn borer Potential to:  reduce insecticide use  reduce mycotoxins 40% U. Corn crop Bt (2006) .S.

 More food from less land.resistant to pests.  Reduce the need for pesticide and other chemicals. disease and severe weather.Benefits  Agricultural productivity .  Longer shelf life .

 Enabling faster vaccination of large population. .Benefits(cont.)  Remove genes associated with allergies.  develop pharmaceuticals and vaccines in plants.  enhance nutritional value.

 Fear that transgenic plants might pass their new genes to close relatives in nearby wild areas. .  Potential to create super weeds.  GMO could compete or breed with wild species. herbicides resistance.Ethical Concerns of GMO  Safety of GM foods and the possible environmental consequences of growing GM plants.

.Ethical Concerns of GMO(cont..)  Transgene encoding a pesticide like protein might cause plants to produce pollen toxic to pollinators.  Protein product of transgene might lead to allergic reaction.

Herbicide Resistance Concerns Encourages herbicide use  Groundwater contamination  Kills beneficial soil microbes Cross-pollinates weeds Fosters dependence on Agrochemcial companies .

GMO products Labelling Consumers are demanding for GMO products to be labelled. .

.  Reece. Wasserman.Reference  Savulescu J. The ethics of cloning and creating embryonic stem cells as a source of tissue for transplantation: time to change the law in Australia. Cain.. A. (1998).. Urry. S.. B. R. N. 30: 492–8. Aust N Z J Med 2000. Jackson.  Resnik. L. Minorsky. & Campbell. D.Chicago . Campbell biology.. V. A. P. B. A. M.. (2014). L. The Ethics of Science: An Introduction. J.