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FLOW OF COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

Contents
•Introduction
•Flow of gas through a nozzle
•Flow in a pipe
•Velocity of propagation of pressure wave
•Converging-diverging nozzles for gas flow
•Shock waves

Learning Outcome

The student should develop an understanding of the concept

of

compressible flow, apply energy equation to compressible flow and
determine flow rate under compressible conditions

INTRODUCTION
• Fluids: gas or liquid
• Both are compressible to certain degree
• Liquid has very high “bulk modulus”-regarded
incompressible
• Under normal conditions, gases are compressible—low bulk
modulus
• We will consider only flow of ideal gases
• Density change is key
• Conditions such as isothermal (good heat transfer to
surrounding, small equipment, low flow rate) and adiabatic
(large installations, high flow rate) will be considered
• Applications: flow in pipes, flow through orifices and nozzles

FLOW OF GAS THROUGH A NOZZLE OR ORIFICE Applications: •Design of relief valves for pressurized systems.helps protect equipment and personnel when equipment is operated at pressures above design pressure •Venting gases evolving from chemical reaction Lets consider the conditions below in which we aim to determine flow: -Gas flows through aperture (mass flow and velocity) -Vessel maintained at condition 1 and discharges at condition 2 .

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For isentropic conditions  2  wc       1   1 28 .

reduction of P2 initially results in increase in G 3. when P1 =P2. G increases until the gas line velocity reaches sonic velocity at P2=Pw 4.Flow in a pipe • Compressibility affects relation between flowrate and pressure • Density changes as a result of pressure and temperature changes • For a pipe connecting two reservours: one at upstream P1 (constant) and another at downstream P2 1. Further reduction in P2 has no effect on the flow . no flow G=0 2.