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FALLACY

Informal
Fallacy

fallacy is committed with the intention of deceiving o ralogism. nds phism.llacy erived from the Latin word ‘fallere’ which means to deceive’. is a violation of the logical principle disguised under show of validity. . awed reasoning or argument which is deceptive in presentat plausible argument that uses false or illogical reasoning.fallacy is committed unconsciously.

A.argument using word that has the same spelling or sound but different meaning in different parts of the argument. Accent. 1. Fallacies of Ambiguity- fallacies that occur in arguments using words whose meaning change in the course of the argument. . Amphiboly-it is produced by using faulty sentence construction allowing itself to be interpreted in various ways due to faulty syntax. or syllable in a proposition. 2. word. Equivocation. 3.it arises due to a difference in interpretation brought about by misplaced emphasis on a phrase.

g. 2 and 3 are less than 4 2 and 3 are 5 of pages.Taking separately what should be taken together as a unit. 5 is less than 4 light A page is light.4. This book is made up Thus. this book is 5.Taking together what should be taken separately. It proceeds to take the attribute of the parts of the whole to be the same to the whole itself. Composition. e. 20 is divisible by 5 school 12 and 8 are 20 Uslt is a catholic Thus every student . Division. Argument takes what is true of the whole to be true to its parts.g. e.

Fallacies of Relevance.B. so there’s nothing wrong if we also use our cellphone once in a while. e. Why should I believe in you. rather. 1. It is the person who presents the argument who is being attacked not the argument itself. Argumentum ad Hominem (Argument against the person)Argument is rejected not because of its noncoherence but because of who the person is.g. you’re an ex-convict! You are probably the rapist because you look like one. it simply works on certain emotions to cause acceptance of the conclusion.g. It does not provide evidence to support the conclusion.Premises of the argument are logically irrelevant so the conclusion cannot be established. It thus depends on psychological factors for the persuasive force. Sometimes our instructor uses his cellphone inside the class. To Quoque (you too).a variation of Ad Hominem which arises when one claims that a certain action is all right because someone or everybody else does it. e. .

. Tomorrow is a holiday according to the janitor of the school. uses emotional persuasion to effect the acceptance of his conclusion. your hair will be as beautiful as that of KC Conception.2. instead of using logical reasons to support his conclusion. If you use Palmolive shampoo. Argumentum Ad Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity). I am the best of the best according to my mother. e.g. Argumentum Ad Verecundiam (Appeal to Authority).It arises when a speaker.it arises if we site someone as an authority on a topic which lies outside of his field of specialty. It appeals to our instinct of compassion. 3.

Argumentum Ad Populum (Appeal to the People). Manny Pacquiao should already retire in boxing because majority of his supporters favors his retirement.it arises when one who. gives more emphasis to the emotions and opinions of the crowd as basis of conclusion. The existence of Purgatory must be true. instead of giving more weight or emphasis to the relevant fact of the argument.   5. The University just made the wrong decision in increasing tuition fee because most of the students of the university are rallying against it. because nobody has ever successfully defended that it is just a product of imagination.g.4. e.g. Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance)It arises when an argument is taken as true inasmuch as this has not yet been proven as false. . e.

g. Allow me to kiss you or else. .it is committed when one appeals to force or threat for the acceptance of an argument. It is usually resorted to when an evidence or rational arguments fail. e. if you do not accept the existence of God. You must believe that God exists. you’ll never see me again. then you will be thrown into the fires of hell. Argumentum Ad Baculum (Appeal to Force).6. After all. If you will not give me your cellphone number I’ll give you a failing grade.

this crystal possesses healing powers. 1. So. .C. This item from the store is expensive. e. Thus. This item from the same store is also expensive. Fallacy of Insufficient Evidence – Premises of the argument is not enough to support the conclusion.This occurs when one generalization about an entire set on the basis of small sample that does not represent the set.g.Hasty Generalization.g. 2. e. It takes coincidental occurrence to be the true cause of an event. all items in that store is expensive. False Cause (Post Hoc) –Committing an error by assuming that the most recent event is the cause of the present event. I got well after I wore this crystal.

4.3. Dan committed a mortal sin. Neglected Aspect.g. e.Committed when one presents an evidence in support of a conclusion while neglecting or ignoring evidence that would support another.g. Using knives on people is bad.committer when one take a general rule and applies it to its accidental or exceptional cases. a soldier killed many in the battle field. Dan. Surgeons use knives on people. Accident. they are bad. So. Killing is a mortal sin. since such information might affect your decision. A classmate invites you for a sleep-over without telling you how far the place is. Thus. . e.

Converse Accident.Formulating general rules from accidental situations.g. .5. e.