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Development of Buddhism & Jainism.

Keshlunchan. • The teachings of Mahavira Swami (died 587 BC) and Gautama Buddha (623 BC-560BC) formed the basis or two distinct religions Jainism and Buddhism. and total Ahimsa. Shri-Lanka. however. Ashwaghosha. • May be perhaps due to its stress on slightly tough principles like Tapa. Buddhism blossomed. Tibet. contributed immensely to its growth and spread the same. • Thanks to the enthusiasm of its followers and royal patronage of kings like Asoka.Development of Buddhism & Jainism. It could not find that much . flourished and spread tar and wide and even crossed the shores of India and found still greater following and acceptance out of the country of its birth in countries like china. cannot be said about Jainism. Burma etc. Kanishka and Harsha . Japan. • The learned messengers like Nagarjuna. Nudity.

• His grandson. However. ruling from Patliputra had established the first great empire in India by extending their reign over most of the Ganges basin. its foundations remained intact to the advantage of its successive usurpers Mahapadma Nanda (364324BC) and Chandragupta Maurya to build upon in the following century.Development of Buddhism • By the end of the 6th century BC king Bimbisar (544BC-493BC) of Magadha Dynasty and his son Ajatshatru (493BC.232BC) fought many battles and further expanded the empire to cover present day Orissa and Andhra Pradesh . • The power of Magadha was not seriously impaired in spite of the fact that the successors of Ajatshatru were not so strong. Asoka (270. They could not further expand the empire.462BC). • Backed by a sound economy and efficient administration the Mauryas consolidated their control over the whole of North India. Chandragupta's son Bindusar further extended Mauryan control and carried it into Deccan.

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• His son Bindusara ( 298-272 BCE) became a follower of even more ascetic movement called as Ajivikas. Asoka lost faith in the traditional Aryan order and after more than a year consultation with various philosophers . At the end of his life . • After a particular brutal battle . founder of thee Mauryan dynasty abdicated his throne and became a Jain ascetic. decided to convert to Buddhism. . • Asoka was not the first Mauryan leader to be interested in Buddhism . Chandragupta Maurya . the most famous Mauryan King.• Buddhism might have remained just another intellectual system Ashoka of Aryan world had it not been adopted as state law and modern order under Ashoka ( 272-231 BCE) .

During this reign pillars (Stambha) . Pandya and Chera empires in the south. • In essence Buddhism became a state religion. but were low caste upstarts who became Kshatriya after sizing the Magadha throne. • Ashoka conquered Kalinga (modern day Orissa and part of Andhra) and established close relations with .• The ascetic interest of these rulers derived from the fact that they were not born into the Aryan ( warrior Kshatriya caste). • Asoka is credited with having disinterred the remains of Buddha from their original ten Stupas for redistribution and reinstatement in new Stupas throughout his empire. if not direct rule over . the Chola . • It is believed that Eighty four thousand stupas were built during this period. • The difference between Asoka and predecessors was that he adapted Buddhist teachings into a new moral and social order for his empire that he called dhamma ( means dharma).

Amravati (AP).DEVELOPMENT OF BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE •Buddhism gave impetus to the development of architecture art and craft . Bharhut (MP). • Various stupas were built to commemorate Bodhisattva and Buddhacharyas at various places like Sanchi (MP). •To propagate Buddhism they (Mauryan) erected stone and iron pillars with religious messages inscribed on them at various places. made it more popular and thereby contributed to its growth and consolidation . Piprawa (Basti disstt. Takshashila (now in Pakistan). •Buddhist monks lived and prayed in Viharas and Chaityas but in rocks of the distant mountains away from the hustle and bustle of crowded & heavily populated urban and rural centers •They created rock cut architecture in the form of rock cut caves which in turn developed the interest of masses in Buddhism. •On their Torans Dwaras important incidences of their life is inscribed. . UP).

DEVELOPMENT OF BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE .

3. . 1. 7.DEVELOPMENT OF BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE • A new architectural style emerged on the account of artistic oronation of various Buddha Viharas . 4. Stupas. Stambha and monuments (e. 6. Mathura style and Gandhara style). 2. 5. Monolithic pillars. Edicts inscribed on rocks. Rock cut chambers. • The art and architecture of those times developed and manifested in seven important forms. Monolithic accessories to shrines. Buddhist Monasteries. Castles and places.g.

Arthashastra has given and informative account an of CITY PLANNING. • The columns of the palace were decorated with golden creepers. • The rampart had fenestrations to facilitate shooting arrows and other weapons .60 km). • The enclosure all around the city was made up of timber . • The city had a royal palace ( described as most beautiful one in the world). . ( 1 mile = 1. • The city was laid in a shape of a parallelogram . And chirping silver birds as described by the Chinese traveler Pha-Hean. Patliputra was situated on the confluence of rivers Ganga and Sone. which had 570 bastions and 64 gates. • There was a moat in the front which was 600 ft wide and 30 ft deep. • Kautilyas interesting .• According to Megasthenies (Indica) . which was nine and a half mile long and two miles wide.

2. Kosamdetails . Vaishali.  Boldly designed . Sarnath . In height are in one piece of stone while the shaft and the column consist of another separate piece.  The purpose was solely monumental as they are free standing pillars not a part of any architectural composition. The pillars were found at – 1.Reference Elaborate .  The two pieces are joined together by a copper bolt accurately fitted into the tenon made for it without use of any cement. finely proportioned and conceptually balanced defining their purpose. 3.MONOLITHIC PILLARS  The Ashokan pillars are of great artistic value.It seems that out of those mentioned by them some have since destroyed. Rampurva 5.  Pha heyan spotted six whereas Huen T sang spotted twelve such pillars . Sansika. Snchi.  The two portions of the monuments which together average 7 ft. Lion Cpital 4.

.PILLARED HALL OF RAJPRADA.