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Principles of Plant Design I

Notes
Piping and Instrumentation

Ancient Chinese Philosopher
Confucius
I hear and I forget.
I see and I remember.
I do and I understand.

Ancient Chinese Philosopher
Confucius
I hear and I forget.
I see and I remember.
I do and I understand.
I practice and I perfect

Piping and Instrumentation






Introduction
The P and I Diagram
Valve Selection
Pumps and Compressors
Mechanical Design of Piping Systems
Pipe Size Selection
Control and Instrumentation
4

5 .Introduction • The process flowsheet shows the arrangement of the major pieces of equipment and their interconnection. instruments. It is a description of the nature of the process. • It is often called the Engineering Flowsheet or Engineering Line Diagram. piping. and fittings and their arrangement. valves. • The Piping and Instrument diagram (P and I diagram or PID) shows the engineering details of the equipment.

Introduction • The design of piping systems and the specification of the process instrumentation and control systems are usually done by specialist design groups 6 .

2. identified by a line number.The P and I Diagram The P and I diagram shows the arrangement of the process equipment. The pipe size and material of construction should be shown. valves. 7 . The material may be included as part of the line identification number. piping. and other fittings. pumps. All process equipment. identified by an equipment number. It should include 1. instruments. The equipment should be drawn roughly in proportion and the location of nozzles shown. All pipes.

and steam traps. All control loops and instruments. such as inline sight-glasses. The type and size should be shown. Ancillary fittings that are part of the piping system. with an identification number. All valves. The type may be shown by the symbol used for the valve or included in the code used for the valve number.The P and I Diagram 3. Pumps. 6. 5. control and block valves. 4. identified by a suitable code number. with an identification number. with an identification number.strainers. 8 .

so the information can be shown clearly. 9 . the utility (service) lines can be shown on the P and I diagram. separate diagrams should be used to show the service lines. • The service connections to each unit should. be shown on the P and I diagram. however. without cluttering up the diagram. • For complex processes.The P and I Diagram • For simple processes.

10 .The P and I Diagram • The P and I diagram will resemble the process flowsheet. but the process information is not shown. • The same equipment identification numbers should be used on both diagrams.

instruments. • The equipment symbols are usually more detailed than those used for the process flowsheet. and control loops will depend on the practice of the particular design office. • A typical example of a P and I diagram is shown in next slide. 11 . valves.Symbols and Layout • The symbols used to show the equipment.

A Typical P&I Diagram 12 .

11984 (R1992). and valves are given by the Instrumentation Systems and Automation Society design code ISA-5. controllers. and different standards are followed in some countries.Symbols and Layout • International standard symbols for instruments. such as BS 1646 in the UK and DIN 19227 and DIN 2429 in Germany 13 . • Some companies use their own symbols though.

and the operation of thermosyphon re-boilers. the net positive suction head (NPSH) of pumps. for example. barometric legs. • Full details of pipe layout are usually shown in a different drawing.Symbols and Layout • When the diagram is laid out. siphons. 14 . known as a piping isometric drawing. it is only necessary to show the relative elevation of the process connections to the equipment where they affect the process operation.

• It is the general practice among engineering organizations to produce isometric drawings of a piping system to represent all the details. 15 .Piping Isometric Drawing • An isometric drawing for a piping system is a detailed orthographic drawing. • The isometric drawing represents the details of the 3D structure of the pipe in the form of a 2D diagram.

Piping Isometric Drawing • Development of computer aided design (CAD) tools allows the piping system to be modeled in 3D and this 3D model can then be used by the piping designer to quickly produce isometric drawings with minimum interference. 16 .

piping class and material. 3. 2. 17 . Straight lengths of all the pipe runs on the drawing are reported as clearly as possible.Data carried on a typical isometric drawing 1. The line numbers for lines pipe runs represented on the drawing is clearly indicated. This line number is indicative of the fluid service. insulation etc. Isometric drawings carry a graphical representation of the 3 dimensional piping system being represented.

A Typical Piping Isometric Diagram 18 .

A Typical Piping Isometric Diagram 19 .

A table gives the number and detailed description of each type of fittings represented on the drawing. 5. flanges. valves. 7. In addition. elbows etc. 6. For complex piping systems. are clearly represented graphically. individual 20 . The operating and design process conditions (pressure and temperature) for the pipe run may also be reported on the isometric.Data carried on a typical isometric drawing 4. all the fittings including.

compared to other orthographic drawings. since they carry all the necessary information for these tasks. they are used for fabrication and then construction of the piping system. • Isometric drawings are easier to be used for stress analysis of the piping. 21 . • Moreover an isometric is not overcrowded with other information. fabrication and construction. useless for piping and it is easy to visualize.Piping Isometric • Upon completion and approval of the piping isometrics.

Basic Symbols 22 .

Basic Symbols 23 .

Basic Symbols 24 .

Basic Symbols 25 .

26 . D. • The letter Z is used for the final control element when this is not a valve. • The letter Y as second or subsequent letter indicates a relay or a compute function. and O are not defined and can be used for any user specified property. N. • The letter S as second or subsequent letter indicates a switch. G. M.Basic Symbols • The letters C.

27 .

Valve Selection • The valves used for a chemical process plant can be divided into two broad classes. used to regulate flow. 28 . Control valves. 2. depending on their primary function: 1. whose purpose is to close off the flow. both manual and automatic. Shut-off valves (block valves or isolation valves).

Gate Valve Plug Valve Ball Valve Globe Valve Diaphragm Valve Butterfly Valve Nonreturn Valve 29 . f. c. d. b.Valve Selection • The main types of valves used are a. e. g.

Valve Selection Gate Valve Plug valve 30 .

Valve Selection Ball valve Globe valve 31 .

Valve Selection Diaphragm Valve Butterfly Valve 32 .

Valve Selection Nonreturn valves 33 .

and ball valves are most frequently used for this purpose 34 . plug.shut-off purposes • A valve selected for shut-off purposes should give a positive seal in the closed position and minimum resistance to flow when open.Valve Selection . Gate.

• Butterfly valves are often used for the control of gas and vapor flows. • Automatic control valves are usually globe valves with special trim designs. though diaphragm valves are also common. 35 . • Globe valves are normally used.Valve Selection – flow control • If flow control is required. the valve should be capable of giving smooth control over the full range of flow. from fully open to closed.

Valve Selection 36 .

Pumps and Compressors 37 .

Mechanical Design of Piping Systems 38 .

Pipe Size Selection 39 .

Control and Instrumentation 40 .

30% do and I understand.Ancient Chinese Philosopher Confucius • • • • I I I I hear and I forget. 0% see and I remember. 41% .48% practice and I perfect >60% Remember to do Remember to take time to read your notes Remember to take time to practice .