You are on page 1of 37

Population and Settlement

Case Studies

A case study to illustrate strategies to influence


natural population change within a country
China one child policy

The Main Facts

Population - 1.3 billion - highest in the world

In 1970 families were asked to limit families to two children

The One child policy became law in 1979

Women must be 25 before they can marry

Permission must be given before people can marry and have children

Free health care, childcare, education and better pensions provided for those who comply with new laws

Fines for parents who have two or more children

Forced abortions and sterilisation have been reported

What are the Effects

Birth rates fell from 33 per 1000 to 16 per 1000

Population growth is slowing down

It has worked in the towns but not so successful in the countryside

Boys are more valued than girls and there has been talk of genocide taking place especially of the girls

The population is becoming unbalanced - 110 males for every 100 females

The little emperor syndrome has developed with boys being spoilt

Males are having problems finding a wife

The ageing population will cause dependency problems in the future

Recent Changes - The law has now been relaxed and:-

Families can have a second child especially if they have a girl first.

A second child is permitted if the first one is handicapped

Families who are only children are allowed to have two children

History of the policy?


Where is China?

Why does China need a one


child policy?

Success? Future of
the policy
Chinas one
child policy

Incentives for having one


child
Penalties for having more than one child

Use your video


notes and hand
out to complete
your A3 case
study

Extended thinking question


Is this policy sustainable?

A case study of international migration to


illustrate the causes, consequences and
management
Mexico-USA

The

Main Facts
Population - 1.3 billion - highest in the world
In 1970 families were asked to limit families to two children
The One child policy became law in 1979
Women must be 25 before they can marry
Permission must be given before people can marry and have children
Free health care, childcare, education and better pensions provided for those who comply with new
laws
Fines for parents who have two or more children
Forced abortions and sterilisation have been reported
What

are the Effects


Birth rates fell from 33 per 1000 to 16 per 1000
Population growth is slowing down
It has worked in the towns but not so successful in the countryside
Boys are more valued than girls and there has been talk of genocide taking place especially of the
girls
The population is becoming unbalanced - 110 males for every 100 females
The little emperor syndrome has developed with boys being spoilt
Males are having problems finding a wife
The ageing population will cause dependency problems in the future
Recent

Changes - The law has now been relaxed and:Families can have a second child especially if they have a girl first.
A second child is permitted if the first one is handicapped
Families who are only children are allowed to have two children

A case study of migration


within one country
Indonesia Transmigration

Mexico Push and Pull factors

Push from Mexico:


Lack of job opportunities
Poor standard of living
Lack of services
healthcare and education

Pull into America:


Excellent healthcare
Excellent education
Job opportunities temporary and seasonal
The American Dream

Mexico to USA
Why leave Mexico?
Low standard of living
Lack of skilled, well-paid employment
Few opportunities
Lack of education
Poor quality housing
Poor health service
Why migrate to the USA?
Many opportunities
High standard of living (one of highest
in the world)
Many job opportunities (well-paid jobs)
Education
Excellent health care
Search for the American Dream
Some characteristics of Mexico and
the USA

USA

Mexico

Unemployment

7%

17%

People per
doctor

400

1800

Family income

$24, 750 $3, 750

School
attendance

99%

55%

The issues of migration from Mexico to the


USA

Satellite image
of the Mexico
California
border

Wetbacks
illegal
immigrants
who cross
from Mexico
to USA
across the Rio
Grande.

Tijuana, Mexico

San Diego, California

A case study of urban change to illustrate social,


economic and environmental planning and its
sustainability
Greenwich Millennium Village

On a patch of scrap
land you have been
asked to develop a
sustainable
community... What
do you do?

The area of land that


was chosen, not fully
developed in this
image

The area used to


be mainly grass

How is this development sustainable?


Context statement/

How has land use helped


make GMV ecological?

Basic facts of the


development

Greenwich
Millenium
Village
(GMV)
Future of GMV can we learn
from it?

Viewpoints
Positives

Negatives

A case study to illustrate how retail


service provision changes over time
Bristol Shopping

Location of some Famers


Markets in Bristol
Markets:

Gatcom
be farm
shop

Leigh
Court
Farm ltd
Long
Ashton
village
market

Car Boot Sales:


Car boot sales are a very good
way in which people can buy
and sell goods. Most Car boots
happen in farmers fields or on
open areas around the city.

Car Boot Sales in


Bristol:
There are many car boots sells
around Bristol for example;
Filton Sports And Leisure
Centre on a Saturday
It costs 6 for a car and 10 for
a van to go and sell there
items
Or
Whitchurch car boot on a
Saturday

The distribution of shops is changing so the shops


are generally closer together and there are far more
large superstores. The distribution of shops is
complex because there are so many different ways
to buy things. It is made easier by new transport
links allowing out of town shopping centre e.g.
Cribbs Causeway. It is also changes as the public
begins to change how often and how they shop,
making fewer trips to further away stores and
buying all they need at once.

Since 1997,

Labour have
closed 5,000
Post Offices
across the
country,
including 38 in
Bristol and
South
Gloucestershir
e. That's one
in four post
offices shut
down in Bristol
North West
and
Kingswood.

Clone Town
Shopping
What is Clone
Town Shopping
Clone town is a
global term for a
town where the High
Street or other major
shopping areas are
significantly
dominated by Chain
stores.

Facts
Over the last ten years
small businesss have
been closing down at
the rate of 2000 a year.
Within areas such as
Bristol there are 3
large shopping venues
with over 500 chain
stores that offer
everything a shopper
would need, therefore
smaller businesss tend

E-tailing
Specialist shops are at risk from e-tailing

unless they start selling over the internet.


Due to e-tailing eBay has become more used
for fixed price sales rather than auction sales.
In 2007, two music chains (FOPP & music
zone) sold off all of its branches because so
many people online.

E-tailing in Bristol
Due to the increase in e-tailing, web design

companies like Yoto Creative (a Bristol


company) are thriving.

Ethical Shopping Part I


Ethical Shopping involves taking into account the environment and conditions goods are produced in and how they will affect the futures of the environment and the people who produce that good.

Environmentally, people may be concerned where their

goods come from, and the transportation required to


import and/or transport that good to the retail facility. This
is from where the idea of food miles was conceived. This
idea concerns how many miles the good has travelled.
Obviously, more miles means more fuel as used for
transportation.

Another concern of ethical shoppers is how companies produce their


goods and how they obtain their economies of scale. Globalisation has
meant MNCs can produce products at cheaper prices per unit as they
are buying in bigger quantities and outsource jobs. They can pay lower
wages as average salaries are lower and the Purchasing Power Parity is
higher, that amount of currency can buy more goods in that country.
This increases profits. This is of concern to people and trade unions,
people are lowly-paid and overworked in these outsourced jobs as
there is less regulation

Ethical Shopping Part II (Veblen


Goods)
Products such as those produced in organic and fair-trade manners also affect the
market-place. These products carry a premium as a result as how they are produced.
More money goes to the people that produce them. But some of this premium could
come from the Veblen effect. These goods carry a positive price elasticity of demand.
This is unlike other goods, as traditionally, if the price of a good were to inflate, people
would stop buying it, thus reducing the demand. But these goods increase in demand
if the price inflates, breaking the traditional laws of demand. The good carries an
increased status, so more people would be prepared to buy it. Sustainable shopping
will always be on peoples minds, so if the price were to increase, more money would
go to the person who makes it as they would normally receive the same proportion of
the price. If people spend more money on a product, they can also say they are
making more effort to protect the environment, creating a snob effect.

A traditional elasticity of demand


graph. If the price goes down, the
quantity sold goes up. (These marked
by D and Q) Thorstein Veblens
theory does not comply with this.

Introducing Space-Hungry Stores.

Examples:
Before

After?