Rousseau as a Naturalist

About Rousseau
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born on June 28, 1712 in Geneva, Switzerland. He hated society for the evils & wanted to reform it. He realised, Every thing is good as it comes from the hands of the author of nature but it every where degenerates in the hands of the nature. He gave the slogan, "Return to nature . Because of his (Emile) unfavorable reactions were caused in France & Switzerland he had to go to England in 1766 after which he returned to France after 11 years and wrote his last book Confessions His thoughts influenced French revolution .He was acclaimed as a great revolutionary reformer. He died in 1778.

His Works

‡Social Contract ‡New Heloise. ‡Emile ‡The progress of Arts & Science

His Philosophy
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Rousseau s naturalist philosophy shows the following three forms: Social naturalism Psychological naturalism. Physical naturalism SOCIAL NATURALISM: In his social naturalism he devices education as a method to develop the society. Rousseau s social naturalism is found in his book, "The Social Contract His aim is man making and not making of social man and citizen. In man making man/child should follow his inner feelings & natural tendencies. Rousseau pleaded for liberty & equality. Acc to him education means, "Natural development of organs and powers of the child.

Development acc to Rousseau
Acc to Rousseau man s development may be classified into the following four stages: ‡ Infancy: From birth to five years of age.
‡ Childhood: From five years too twelve years of age. ‡ Adolescence: From twelve years of age to fifteen years of age. ‡ Youth: From fifteen years of age to twenty years of age. ‡ Rousseau has suggested suitable education in all these stages in his book Emile.

Aims Of Education
INFANCY CHILDHOOD ADOLSCENCE ADULT

Five yrs of bodily development. Has to remain active.

Developing sense organs through activity & experience.

Develop his own natural instincts by freedom

Child should be made to observe things in envt.

Aim at developing adolescent personality through hard work ,guidance & study. To be given various kind of knowledge.

Dev of moral and social qualities through dev. Of sentiments. Dev. Of religious emotions,bodil y,sensory,ment aldev.

Curriculum of Education

First understand the child psychology& then frame the curriculum. Instead of ready made dozes of knowledge the infant the focus should be development. The mother tongue should be given more emphasis. No habits should be instilled .

Learning through direct experience . Should be given liberty to experience as it will develop the sensory organs leading to mental dev,reason,dev of power of argument & reasoning. Shd be given verbal lessons on history,geog,lang. Morality will be learned by natural consequences. Laid stress on moral & religious edn. Moral edn through moral lectures. Imp to edn in bodily health ,music& sex.

Exposed to formal teaching consisting of natural sci, language,maths,woodw ork,music,painting,soci al life & some kind of professional training.