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Frequency Domain

Filtering in

the Frequency Domain

Compute Fourier transform of image

Multiply the result by a filter transfer

function (or simply filter).

Take the inverse transform to produce the

enhanced image.

Summary:

G(u,v) = H(u,v) F(u,v)

1

Filtered Image = G(u,v)

f(x,y) * h(x,y) F(u,v) H(u,v)

(x,y) * h(x,y) [(x,y)] H(u,v)

h(x,y) H(u,v)

Filters in the spatial and frequency domain

form a FT pair, i.e. given a filter in the

frequency domain we can get the

corresponding one in the spatial domain by

taking its inverse FT

Frequency Domain

Frequency Domain

Enhancement in

the Frequency Domain

Types of enhancement that can be done:

Lowpass filtering: reduce the high-frequency

content -- blurring or smoothing

Highpass filtering: increase the magnitude of

high-frequency components relative to lowfrequency components -- sharpening.

Frequency Domain

Lowpass Filtering

in the Frequency Domain

Edges, noise contribute significantly to the highfrequency content of the FT of an image.

Blurring/smoothing is achieved by reducing a

specified range of high-frequency components:

G (u , v) H (u , v) F (u, v)

Smoothing

in the Frequency Domain

G(u,v) = H(u,v) F(u,v)

Ideal

Butterworth (parameter: filter order)

Gaussian

These three filters cover the range from very sharp (ideal) to very

smooth (Gaussian) filter functions. The Butterworth filter has a

parameter , called the filter order. For high values of this

parameter the butterworth filter approaches the ideal filter.

For lower order values, the butterworth filter similar to the

Gaussian filter. Thus the butterworth filter may be viewed as a

transition between two extremes.

A 2-D ideal low-pass filter:

1 if D (u, v) D0

H (u, v)

0 if D (u , v) D0

where D0 is a specified nonnegative quantity and

D(u,v) is the distance from point (u,v) to the center of

the frequency rectangle.

Center of frequency rectangle: (u,v)=(M/2,N/2)

Distance from any point to the center (origin) of the FT:

D (u, v) (u 2 v 2 )1/ 2

Frequency Domain

Ideal:

all frequencies inside a circle of radius D0 are

passed with no attenuation

all frequencies outside this circle are completely

attenuated.

Cutoff-frequency: the point of transition between

H(u,v)=1 and H(u,v)=0 (D0)

To establish cutoff frequency loci, we typically

compute circles that enclose specified amounts of

total image power PT.

PT is obtain by summing the components of power

spectrum P(u,v) at each point for u up to M-1 and v

up to N-1.

A circle with radius r, origin at the center of the

frequency rectangle encloses a percentage of the

power which is given by the expression

u

Frequency Domain

This filter does not have a sharp

discontinuity establishing a clear cutoff

between passed and filtered frequencies.

1

H (u , v)

1 [ D(u, v) / D0 ]2 n

To define a cutoff frequency locus: at points

for which H(u,v) is down to a certain fraction

of its maximum value.

When D(u,v) = D0, H(u,v) = 0.5

i.e. down 50% from its maximum value of 1.

Frequency Domain

GLPF in two dimensions is given by

H (u , v) e

D 2 ( u ,v ) / 2 2

and is a measure of the spread of the Gaussian curve. =D

0

We can express the GLPF

H (u , v) e

D 2 ( u ,v ) / 2 D0 2

0.607 of its maximum value.

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