► COURSE TITLE: Pre and Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops ► Course Teacher: Dr. Nadeem Akhtar Abbasi ► Course Objectives & Outcomes To acquaint the students with new advances in pre and post harvest management technology of horticultural crops. To produce technical and skilled persons in the area of post harvest technology. To educate the students about the value addition in horticultural products.

– Let the students evaluate the gap between local prevailing conditions of fruit, flower & vegetable markets and the recommended techniques. – – On completion of this course students should be able to describe causes of pre & post harvest losses of horticultural produce. – – Students should be able to suggest possible solutions to reduce these losses in scenario of local

Week No. Course Description 1. Introduction & importance; Preharvest factors affecting postharvest quality 2.  3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Factors affecting postharvest quality Climacteric and non-climacteric commodities Indices of fruit maturity/ripening of important horticultural plants Indices of fruit maturity/ripening of important horticultural plants Harvesting and curing/ripening of different fruits Harvesting and curing/ripening of different fruits Harvesting and curing/ripening of different vegetables

9. 10

Harvesting and curing of different flowers Packing house operations (culling, grading, washing, cleaning, coloring, waxing and packing of important fruits, vegetables and flowers) Packing house operations (culling, grading, washing, cleaning, coloring, waxing and packing of important fruits, vegetables and flowers) Packing materials and containers Storage (Principles and types) Shipment of fruits for local & foreign markets Shipment of vegetables for local and foreign markets. Student presentations


12 13 14 15 16

Week No. Course Description 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 11
Determination of harvest indices Determination of harvest indices Practices in harvesting Practices in harvesting Grading Grading Curing techniques Packing techniques Packing techniques Machinery and equipments used for various operations Machinery and equipments used for various operations

12 13 14 15 16

Visits to the fruit market Visits to the vegetable market Visits to floral markets packing houses visit Cold storages visit

• Lectures -Most
topics will be covered by consulting most appropriate literature multimedia and over head projector are used as teaching aids. Soft copy of each lecture is made available to students after each lecture, to eliminate the need for extensive note taking in class. Last week of semester is reserved for student presentations of research articles are provided to the students. Printed and electronic materials will be made available throughout the semester, and will form the body of course content.

• Presentations –

• Text Book – Time to time handouts and copies

– Mid and Final Exams –The students
will be evaluated by conducting mid and final exams as per the schedule of the examination branch, UAAR. – Assignment - The class will be divided into different groups, each comprising of 2-3 students. Each group will identify an issue that is relevant to the course content. More details regarding the assignment will be made available during the course of study. – Attendance Policies- only those students are allowed to sit in exams who full fill the attendance requirement as per university rules.

Books Recommended
• Kalia. M. 2006, Post harvest Technology of vegetables. Agrotech Publishing Academy. SSS Printers New Delhi. • Bhattacharjee S. K and L.C. De. 2005, PostHarvest Technology of Flowers and Ornamental Plants. Pointer Publishers jaipur India. • Burg, P. S. 2004, Post harvest Physiology and Hypobaric Storage of Fresh Produce. CABI Publishing. • Choudhry, M. L and K. V. Parsad. 2003, Value Addition in Horticulture. Delhi AgriHorticultural Society. Division of Floriculture and Landscaping Indian Agricultural Research Institute Pusa, New Delhi-110 012.

– Kader, A. A. 2002, Post harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3311. – Mitra, S.K. (1997). Post harvest Physiology and Storage of Tropical and Sub tropical Fruits. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K. Tnompson, A.K. (1996). Post-harvest Technology of Fruits and Vegetables. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford. – Wills, R. B. H., T. H. Lee, D. Graham, W. B. McGlasson and E. G. Hall (1989). PostHarvest (3rd Ed.). BSP Professional Books, Oxford. – O’ Breen, M, B.F. Garill and R.B. Findlay (1983). Principles and Practices for harvesting of Fruits and Nuts. AVI pub Co. Inc., Westport, Connecticut.

• Produce more food
– More emphasis was given

• Conserve the food
– Ignored and resulted in heavy losses of horticultural products.
• 5-25% in developed countries

• 20-50% in developing countries

• Depends upon
– commodity – cv. – Handling conditions

• To reduce losses, producers & handlers must understand:

– Biological factors & Environmental factors involved in Deterioration

– Postharvest techniques:
• To delay senescence • Maintain best possible quality • Value addition

• Preharvest Factors:
– Mineral Nutrition
• Peaches and nectarines under California conditions should be between 2.6 – 3.0% leaf nitrogen. • High levels stimulate vegetative growth, delays fruit maturity, poor red color development and inhibits ground color change from green to yellow. • High N level also resulted in high water loss from fruit during postharvest as compared to low N content. • N deficiency leads to small fruit with poor flavor and unproductive trees. • High levels of N result in more susceptibility to Brown rot in stone fruits.

• High N contents increase postharvest disorders:
– Gray wall or internal browning in tomatoes – Hollow stem of broccoli – Fruit spot in peppers –

• Ca has been implicated in many disorders:
– Bitter pit in apple – Corkspot in pear – Blackheart in celery – Blossom end rot in tomato – Cavity spot and cracking in carrot – Tipburn of lettuce

• Irrigation
– Amount and timing of water application:
• Irrigation cutoff 20 days before harvest can increase SSC in tomatoes • Over irrigation in melons can result in low SSC and fruit rots. • Rapid growth from irrigation following extended drought may result in growth cracks in carrots, potatoes, tomatoes etc. • Over irrigated strawberry shortly before harvest results in softer fruits, more susceptible to bruising and decay

– Mulching – Soil type – Cultivar and rootstock genotype:
• Taste, yield, nutrient composition, postharvest life • Proper genotype can reduce severity of decay, insect damage and physiological disorders.

– Climatic conditions:
• Temperature • Light intensity • Humidity

• Recommended cultural practices • Food safety issues

Fruits, Veg., & Ornamentals are living tissues
• Postharvest changes cannot be stopped • Can be slowed down within certain limits • • Senescence; final stage in development
– Series of irreversible events leads to breakdown and death of cells

Fresh Hort. Crops
• High in water content
– Subject to desication
• Wilting • Shriveling

– Mechanical injury – Susceptible to bacteria & fungi
• Pathological breakdown

Postharvest factors
• Biol. Factors: deterioration • Respiration:
– Stored org. mat.: carbohydrates, proteins, fats >>> simple end products & energy – O2 used, CO2 produced – Results in:
• • • • Loss of stored food reserves Reduced food value Loss of flavour (sweetness) Loss of salable dry wt.

• Respiration:

– Rate of deterioration (Perishability) proportional to resp. rate.

– Hort. Commodities calssified according to resp. rate as in Table.

Horticultural commodities classified according to respiration rates
 

Range at 5ºC (41ºF) Class (mg CO2/kg-hr)* Commodities
Very Low <5 dates, dried fruits and vegetables, nuts Low 5-10 Apple, beet, celery, citrus fruits, cranberry, garlic, grape, honeydew melon, kiwifruit, onion, papaya, persimmon, pineapple, pomegranate, potato (mature), pumpkin, sweet potato, watermelon, winter squash. Moderate 10-20 Apricot, banana, blueberry, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrot (topped), celeriac, cherry, cucumber, fig, gooseberry, lettuce (head), mango, nectarine, olive, peach, pear plum, potato ( immature), radish (topped), sum, mer squash, tomato

• •

• High 20-40 carrot carrot leek , lettuce raspberry, • • Very high

Avocado, Blackberry, (with tops),Blackberry (with tops) cauliflower , (leaf) lima bean radish (radish (with tops) strawberry Artichoke, bean sprouts, broccolil, Brussels sprouts, cherimoya, cut flowers, endive, onions, kale , okra, fruit , snap bean , Asparagus, parsley, spinach sweet corn


green passion watercress

• Extremely high mushroom, peas,


• Note: Vital heat (Btu/ton/24 hrs) = mg CO2/kg-hr *220 • Vital heat (Kcal / 1,000 kg/24 hrs )= mg CO2/kg-hr*61.2

• Based on resp. and C2H4 prod. Patterns during maturation and ripening: climacteric, nonclimacteric • • Climacteric fruits show large increase in CO2 and C2H4 prod. Rates coincident with ripening

• Non-climacteric show no change in their generally low CO2 and C2H4 prod. Rates during ripening

Fruits classified according to respiratory behavior during ripening
   

Climacteric fruits

non-climacteric fruits

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Apple Muskmelon Blackberry Lychee Apricot Nectarine Cacao Okra Avocado Papaya Carambola Olive Banana Passion fruit Orange Biriba Peach Cherry Pea Blueberry Pear Cranberry Pepper Breadfruit Persimmon Cucumber Pineapple Cherimoya Plantain Date Pomegra Durian Plum Eggplant Prickly per Feijoa Quince Grape Raspberry Fig Rambutan Grapefruit Strawberr Guava Sapodilla Jujube Sumer sq Jackfruit Sapote Lemon Tamarillo Kiwifruit Soursop Lime Tangerine Mandarin Mango Sweetsop Longan Mangosteen Tomato Loquat Watermelon

Ethylene Production
• Simplest org. compounds affecting phys. Processes • Nat. prod. Of plant metabolism, produced by all tissues of higher plants and some microorganisms • This pl. hormone regulates many aspects of:
– Growth, development and senescence – Physiol. Active in trace amounts (<0.1 ppm)

Ethylene cycle

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine Aminooxyacetic Acid

Classification of horticultural commodities according to ethylene (C2H4) production rates

Range at 20ºC (68ºF)

Class (mg C2H4/kg-hr)* Commodities____________ Very Low less than 0.1 Artichoke, asparagus, cauliflower cherry, citrus fruits, grape, jujube strawberry, pomegranate, leafy vegetables, root vegetables, potato, most cut flowers Low Blackberry, blueberry, casaba melon, Cranberry, cucumber, eggplant, okra, olive, pepper (sweet and chili), persimmon, pineapple, raspberry, tamarillo, watermelon. Moderate 1.0-10.0 Banana, Fig, guava, honeydew melon, Lychee, mango, plantain, tomato. 0.1-1.0

• •

 


Apple, apricot, avocado, cantaloupe, feijoa, Kiwifruit (ripe), nectarine, papaya, peach, pear, plum. More than 100.0 Cherimoya, mammee apple, passion fruit, sapote.


 

Very high

• No consistent relationship bet. C2H4 prod. Rates & perishability

• Exposure to C2H4 accelerates senescence

• C2H4 prod. Rates increase with:
– – – – – Maturity Physical injuries Disease incidence Increased temp. up to 30C Water stress

 

C2H4 Prod. Decreased by: –Storage at low temp.

– Reduced O2 levels (<8%)

– Elevated CO2 levels (>2%)

Compositional Changes
• Loss of chlorophyll (green color) is desirable in fruits but not in vegetables.

• Development of carotenoids (yellow and orange colors) is desirable in fruits such as apricots, peaches, and citrus. Red color development in tomatoes and pink grape fruit is due to a specific carotenoid (lycopene); beta carotene is provitamin A and thus is important in nutritional quality.

• Development of anthocyanins (red and blue colors) is desirable in fruits such as apples (red cultivars), cherries, strawberries, crane berries, and red-flesh oranges. These water soluble pigments are much less stable than carotenods.

• Changes in anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds may result in tissue browning which is undesirable for appearance quality. On the other hand, these constituents contribute to the total antioxidant capacity of the commodity, which is beneficial to human health.

• Carbohydrates (starch)>>sugar is undesirable in potato but + in apple

• Sugar to starch, - in peas, sweet corn but + in potatoes

• Loss in vitamin content (vit. C), nutr. Qual.

• Prod. Of flavour volatiles with rip. + eating quality

Growth & Development
• Sprouting potatoes, onions, garlic, root crops • Continuous growth of asparagus spears after harvest, elongation, curvature>> increased toughness, palatability • Geotropic responses in cut glad., snapdragon • Seed germination inside fruits, tomatoes, peppers, lemons

Transpiration/water loss
• Quantity loss • Appearance • Textural quality (softening, flaccidity, limpness, loss of crispness & juiciness) • Nutritional quality

Transpiration rate, factors
• Internal (commodity) factors:
– Morphological, anatomical, surface to vol. ratio, surface injuries and mat. stage

• External or environmental
– Temp., RH, air movement and atmospheric pressure

Outer protective coverings:
– Cuticle, epidermal cells, stomata, lenticels, trichome (hairs) Cuticle: – surface waxes, cutin in wax, layer of mix. Of cutin, wax and carbohydrate polymers – Thickness, structure, chemical composition varies>>>commodity and dev. stage

• Apply
– Waxes – Other surface coatings – Wrapping with plastic films Manipulation of environ. High RH Controlling air circulation

  

Physiological breakdown
• Exposure to undesirable temps.:
– Freezing injury
• Held at below freezing temp. of commodity • Collapse of tissues • Total loss of commodity

• Chilling injury –Tropical and subtropical –Above freezing, 5-15C –More prominent on transfer to higher temp. –Surface and internal discoloration, Pitting, Water soaked areas, uneven ripening or failure, offflavour, accelerated dev. Of surface molds and decay

• Heat injury
– Direct sunlight or excessive high temp. – Bleaching, surface burning, scalding, uneven ripe, excessive softening and desiccation.

• Preharvest nutritional imbalance
– Blossom end rot of tomatoes, bitter pit of apples>> Ca def.

• Low O2 or High CO2 injury, C2H4
– <1% O2 – >20% CO2

 

Physical damage

• Surface injuries • Impact bruising • Vibration bruising
– Browning (membrane disruption>>phenoli c comps. To PPO). – These injuries are unsightly, accelerate water loss, fungal infection, stimulate CO2 & C2H4 production.

• PATHOLOGICAL BREAKDOWN • • Bacteria & fungi • Mostly after physical or physiological breakdown except few pathogens • Mostly fruits & veg. exhibit considerable resistance • Onset of ripening & senes., susceptible • Stresses: mech. Injury, chilling, sunscald

– Most influential factor – For each 10C above optimum, rate of deterioration > 2-3 folds. Table:

Effect of temperature on deterioration rate of a non-chilling-sensitive commodity

(°F) (°C)

Assumed Q10 Relative velocity Relative
of deterioration

shelf life 100 33 13 7 4

Loss per day % 1 3 8 14 25

32 50 68 86 104

0 10 20 30 40

3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5

1.0 3.0 7.5 15.0 22.5

Note: *Q10 = Rate of deterioration at temperature (T) + 10oC Rate of deterioration at T

– Temp. also influences effect of C2H4, reduced O2 & elevated CO2. – Spore germination & growth rate of pathogens – If stored at below 5C immediately after harvest can reduce incidence of Rhizopus rot

• Temp. responses of chilling sensitive & nonchilling sensitive hort. Crops • Table:

Fruits & Vegetables classified according to sensitivity to chilling injury

üfailure ü

of fruits to ripen üincreased susceptibility to decay


and pulp discoloration üpitting üloss of aroma and flavor

Fruits and vegetable classified according to sensitivity to chilling injury
Group I Fruits
Apple Apricot Blackberry Blueberry Cherry Currant Date Fig Grape Kiwifruit Loquat Nectarine Peach Persimmons Plum Prune Raspberry Strawberry

Artichoke Beans, lima Beet Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Celery Corn, sweet Garlic Lettuce Mushrooms Onion Peas Radish Spinach Turnip

Group II Fruits
Avocado Banana Citrus Cranberry Durian Guava Jackfruit Lychee Mango Mangosteen Olive Papaya Passion fruit Pineapple Pomegranate Prickly pear Rambutan Tamarillo

Beans, snap Cassava Cucumber Eggplant Ginger Muskmelon Okra Peppers Potato Pumpkin Squash Sweet potato Taro Tomato Watermelon Yam -

• Rate of water loss : vapor pressure deficit between commodity and surrounding ambient air temp. which is influenced by temp. & RH. • At a given RH water loss increases with temp.

• Reduction of O2 & elevation of CO2 • Intentional (modified or CA storage) • Unintentional (restricted vent. In container) • Can delay or accelerate deterioration • Depends:
– Commodity, cv., physiological age, O2 & CO2 levels, temp. & duration.

• Effect can be desirable or undesirable: • Can promote faster & uniform ripening • Exposure of nonfruit vegs. & ornamentals to C2H4 is detrimental to quality.

• Greening in potatoes: –formation of chlorophyl & solanine (toxic to humans).

• Chemicals:
– Fungicides, growth regulators can affect biological deterioration factors.

• Development
– The series of process from the initiation of growth to death of a plant or plant part.

• Growth
– The irreversible increase in physical attributes of a developing plant or plant part.

• Maturation
– The stage of development leading to the attainment of physiological or horticultural maturity

• Horticulture Maturity
– The stage of development when a plant or plant part possesses the prerequisites for utilization by consumers for a particular

• Physiological Maturity
– The stage of development when a plant or plant part will continue ontogeny even if detached

• Ripening
– The composite of the processes that occur from the later stage of growth and development through the early stage of senescence and that result in characteristic esthetic and food quality, as evidenced by change in composition, color, texture, or other sensory attributes.

• Senescence
– Those processes that follow physiological maturity or horticultural maturity and lead to death of tissue

• Aging
– Any increment of time which may or may not be accompanied by physiological change.

Indices of Maturity
► Measurements that can be used to determine maturity of the commodity

ØTrade Regulation
• Regulations published by legally authorities • • Minimum & maximum maturity acceptable for a given commodity

ØMarketing Strategy
• Price incentive for the earliest or latest shipments of any commodity • • Grower take advantage of premium price