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. NDT & DT

Destructive Testing
Testing Methods
Specimen as per code
Non – Destructive Testing
Testing Methods
Visual Inspection
Specimen Selection Criteria
Acceptance Criteria as per Codes

AN OVERVIEW
The term mechanical testing is used to describe a group of test methods
for establishing or confirming the mechanical properties of a material or a
completed weld. Most of these tests involve sectioning or otherwise destroying
some part of the object being tested and thus they are sometimes called
destructive tests. The tests are generally classified by the property they are
intended to define. Each follows a well-established procedure, which is part of a
published standard, allowing individual test results to be compared to other
results or statistical norms. This section describes the following mechanical tests,
some of which are destructive, that are carried out on welds:
macroscopic & microscopic examinations
bend test
tension test
hardness test
charpy vee notch test
Izod test
crack tip open displacement test
nick break test
chemical test

Bend Test :
The bend test is a popular test method that is found in many welding standards and
specifications throughout the world due to the simplicity of the test method and
equipment required. The history of the bend test dates back to the early years of wrought
iron and steel testing before the advent of modern testing equipment. Bend specimens
are prepared typically from a test plate rather than from an expensive finished product
and are used to evaluate the ductility and soundness of welded joints.
There are two different bend testing methods:
guided bend test
free bend test
Guided Bend Test
The guided bend test is commonly used in welder and procedure qualification tests
to determine the ability of the welder to make sound welds. The test is performed by
bending prepared specimens of a specific dimension (usually specified in the relevant
code) in a special jig. The dimensions of the jig will vary with specimen thickness and
material.

It is important to note that the strain applied to the test specimen
depends on the spacing of the rollers and the radius of the member. The
strain on the outside fiber of the bend specimen can be approximated from
the following formula:
e = 100 t / ( 2R + t )
where
e = strain, %
t = bend test specimen thickness, mm. (in)
R = inside bend radius, mm. (in)
When performing qualification tests the specimen thickness and bend
radius are chosen according to the ductility of the metal being tested.
An elongation in the outside fibre of 20 percent can be easily achieved
on sound mild steel welds. Bend tests will consistently fail if the
specimens contain weld discontinuities that are on are near the surface
of the material.
After
bending,
the
welds
are
examined
for
the
presence
of
discontinuities. Many welding standards and specifications consider that
a bend specimen has failed if on examination of the convex surface after
bending there is a crack or open defect exceeding 3mm (1/8 in.).

When the material thickness is greater than 10 mm (3/8 in. This test strains the entire weld cross section.root bend tests .) thick.There are three types of guided bend tests: .) side bend test specimens are usually chosen due to the difficulty in bending the thicker material. and thus is especially useful for exposing defects near the mid-thickness that might not contribute to failure in a face or root bend test.side bend tests A root bend test puts the weld root in tension while a face bend test does the same for the weld face.) or less. Both types are generally used on material thickness of 10 mm (3/8 in. .face bend tests . Side bend test specimens are typically 10mm (3/8 in.

inadequate joint penetration. These problems with weld strength mismatch can be avoided by using longitudinal bend specimens which have the bend axis perpendicular to the weld axis. In this case failure may result when the weld metal ductility is exceeded. This test is usually used for the evaluation of joints in dissimilar metals. . Alternatively. Many problems can develop in transverse bend tests such as an overmatching weld strength may prevent the weld zone from conforming exactly to the bending die radius. and not because the weld metal contained a defect. heat affected zone. and base metal) are strained equally and simultaneously. and the base metal. or undercut are only moderately strained and may not cause failure. the specimen may bend in the weld to a radius smaller than the bending die.Bend Test Limitations The same weakness that tensile tests suffer from also affects bend tests. with an under matching weld strength. and thus may force the base metal to deform to a smaller radius. Weld discontinuities in longitudinal bend tests that are oriented parallel to the weld axis such as incomplete fusion. the heat-affected zone. Bend testing is sensitive to the relative strengths of the weld metal. In this case all zones of the welded joint (weld. Nonuniform properties along the length of the specimen can cause nonuniform bending. This will not produce the desired elongation in the weld.

other than uniaxial tension. A typical stress-strain curve that is produced from a tension test is shown in the diagram. .TENSION TEST Tension tests are performed for the following reasons: . (Appendix C Fig 48) .tensile properties are frequently included in the material specifications to ensure quality . If the loading is continued the specimen will eventually break.test results are used in selecting materials for engineering applications .often tensile properties are measured during the development of new materials and processes so that different materials and processes can be compared.tensile properties are often used to predict the behavior of a material under different forms of loading. The strength and ductility of metals are generally obtained from a simple uniaxial tension test in which a machined specimen is subjected to an increasing load while simultaneous observations of extension are made.

ultimate strength (the highest stress the material is able to withstand) .ductility (the percentage of elongation or reduction of area of a defined segment of the specimen) .breaking or fracture strength (the stress at which the material fails by breaking) . tension tests involve applying a load to the ends of a standard test specimen and recording the point at which the specimen fails by permanent shape change (yielding) and by fracture. A number of mechanical properties can be determined from a tension test.In a welding application. including the following which are of particular significance in welding: .yield strength ( the stress at which permanent deformation occurs) .

The latter specimens are machined so that the smallest dimension of width is in the weld area (reduced section tension test).Two specific types of tension test specimens are used extensively in testing welding materials and welded joints. One of these uses specimens taken from the weld material only (all weld metal tests). and the other uses specimens taken across the weld (reduced section tension specimens). .

yield strength . The test specimen is oriented parallel to the weld axis. If the purpose of the test is to determine weld metal properties in a particular weld ment. then the welding process and procedure used in the actual fabrication should be employed to make the test weld. and is machined entirely from the weld metal.determine the properties of the weld metal in a particular weld ment. This procedure is described in the various filler metal standards.All Weld Metal Test This test is used to determine the tensile properties of a specimen that consists entirely of weld metal.to qualify a filler metal or . To qualify a filler metal the melting of the base metal is minimized when making a test weld. There are two reasons for performing an all weld metal test: . The following are typically properties that are measured and reported in an all weld metal tension test: .tensile strength .elongation -reduction of area .

The hardness test is by far one of the most valuable and the most widely used mechanical test for evaluating the properties of metals as well as certain other materials. or the particular treatment to which the material has been subjected to . an indenter is pressed into the surface of the metal to be tested under a specific load for a definite time interval. and is usually measured by its resistance to indentation by an indenter of a standard shape and size. The main purpose of the hardness test is to determine the suitability of a material.HARDNESS TESTING Hardness can be described as the ability of a material to resist permanent or plastic deformation. and a measurement is made of the size or depth of the indentation. In general.

Such correlations are approximate and must be used with caution when applied to welded joints or any metal with a heterogeneous structure.Hardness testing may be used alone or to complement other test methods. . For instance. both the hardness test and the tension test measure the resistance of a metal to plastic flow. This is what makes the hardness method so popular because of the relationship that exists between hardness and other properties of the material.

Hardness testing is divided into two categories: macrohardness and microhardness. while a low hardness may indicate an overtempered condition. welding may result in significantly lower heat-affected zone hardness due to recrystallization or over aging. There are no absolute standards of hardness and it has no quantitative value. In cold-worked or age-hardened metal. Measurements of hardness can provide information about the metallurgical changes caused by welding.It should be noted that hardness is not a fundamental property of a material and a hardness value is an arbitrary number. except in terms of a given load applied in a specified manner for a specified duration and a specified penetrator shape. . in alloy steels a high hardness could indicate the presence of untempered martensite in the weld heat-affected zone. For example.

Vickers .The hardness testing methods in use today for testing metals are: .Knoop .Brinell .Rockwell .

A notched specimen is broken by a swinging pendulum and the amount of energy required to break the specimen is recorded in foot-pounds or joules. the pendulum will only swing up a small distance since part of its energy has been absorbed by the specimen.CHARPY IMPACT TEST The Charpy vee-notch impact test is the most common fracture toughness test used by industry. . This is determined by measuring how far the pendulum swings upwards after it fractures the specimen. If the specimen is tough. If the specimen is brittle it will absorb little energy thus allowing the pendulum to swing up to almost its original height.

The dimensions of the specimen are shown in the next diagram. Charpy vee-notch specimen holder (Ref Appendix C Fig 46) This puts the notch in tension. In some cases sub size specimens may be used when the material thickness is to small to accommodate the full size specimens. It is extremely important that the specimen is machined to the tolerances and finishes specified (eg ASTM E23 Standard Methods For Notched Bar Impact Testing Of Metallic Materials).Charpy vee-notch impact testing machine (Ref Appendix C Fig 45) The amount of energy absorbed can be read directly off of the dial indicator that is located on the machine. The specimen is supported in place as shown and the pendulum strikes it from behind the notch. causing the specimen to fracture. .

The graph shows the relationship between test specimen temperature and absorbed energy. exhibit a change in failure mode with decreasing temperature. it is common to conduct impact tests over a range of specimen temperatures. For this reason. The performance of the material at different temperatures can be observed and a conclusion made regarding the temperature below which the material can no longer be used without a risk of brittle fracture.Charpy vee-notch specimen dimensions (Refer Appendix C Fig 47) Metals such as carbon and low alloy steels. .

A tough specimen will exhibit more deformation and will have a dull and fibrous surface. the percent shear and the lateral expansion may also be noted. The fractured ends of a specimen often reveal the manner in which it fractured. If the specimen has fractured in a brittle manner with low energy the faces will have a flat. . Metals that exhibit a high Charpy vee notch value are typically those that are more resistant to brittle fracture.Impact energy vs temperature (Refer Appendix C Fig 48) The absorbed energy is the most common value reported. It is important to remember that these tests are comparative only and are no guarantee of ductile behaviour in actual service. however. crystalline and shiny surface.

The positioning of the specimen within the testing machine is critical. The centerline of the notch must be in the plane of the vice top within . . This can introduce a significant error when conducting tests at various temperatures.125 mm. Testing is generally carried out with the specimens at room temperature since the time required to accurately place it in the machine allows its temperature to increase. the Izod specimen is held rigidly in a vice type fixture with the notched side facing the direction of impact. Once the specimen is in place the hammer is released from a preset height and allowed to strike the specimen thus fracturing it at the vee notch. Unlike the Charpy specimen.IZOD IMPACT TEST The Izod test is another form of impact testing. It also involves the use of a vee notched specimen and a machine to deliver an impact blow to the specimen.

Non-Destructive Testing Testing Methods Visual Inspection Specimen Selection Criteria Various NDT Info Penetrant Testing (PT) Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Radiographic Testing Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Visual Inspection Acceptance Criteria Acceptance Criteria .

However these all NDT shares several common elements. these essential elements are summarized below: A Source of Probing energy or Medium A Discontinuity must cause change or alteration of probing energy A means of detecting this change A means of indicating this change A means of observing or recording this indication so that an interpretation can made. each one has associated with its various advantage & Limitations. Followings are the Noted NDT Methods Visual Testing (VT) Penetrant Test (PT) Magnetic Particle Test (MT) Radiographic Test (RT) Ultrasonic Test (UT) Eddy Current Test (ET) . Over the years Numerous Non-Destructive Testing Methods have been developed.1 Testing Methods There are Numerous Non-Destructive tests used to evaluate the base metal to be joined as well as completed welds.

Simply looking at the finished weld without the benefit of seeing those preceding fabrication steps can only provide a limited assurance of weld suitability. “Its important to realize. In order to gain some assurance as to the suitability of the welding for its intended service. code & standard will always stipulate the performance of visual inspection as the minimum level of acceptance/rejection evaluation. visual inspection provides the basic element for evaluation of the structure or components being fabricated. during & after welding. this is possible only when the visual inspection is accomplished before. however. It has been proven fact in numerous situations that an effective program of visual inspection will results in discovery of vast majority of those defects which will be found later using some other expensive NDT Methods. by qualified welding inspector.Visual Inspection In any effective Quality control program.” It has been considered that the only way in which the visual inspection can be considered to effectively evaluate the quality of welds is to apply that inspection at every step of the fabrication process .

Sample Welding inspection Checklist: Before Welding Review applicable documents Check welding procedure Check individual welder qualification Establish Hold points Develop inspection plan Develop system for identification of rejects Check condition of welding equipment Check quality & condition weld filler material Check weld preparation Check joint setups Check adequacy of alignment devices Check weld joint cleanliness Check preheat if required .

During Welding Check welding variable in compliance with welding procedure Check quality of individual weld passes Check inter pass cleaning Check inter pass temperature Check placement & sequencing of individual weld passes Check backgouged surfaces Monitor in-process NDT if required After Welding Check finished weld appearance Check weld size Check weld length Check dimensional accuracy of weldments Monitor additional NDT if required Monitor PWHT if required Prepare Inspection Reports .

If the weld joint factor considered for design is less than 0.85. .7 no radiography is required. spot radiography of 10% length per weld per welder shall be done.Specimen Selection Criteria All longitudinal and circumferential butt weld seams of drums/shells under internal pressure shall be radio graphically examined over their entire length when weld joint factor considered for design is 1. When joint factor is less than 0.

(Ref Appendix C fig 10) This acts as a "blotter." excess surface Penetrant is removed and a developer applied. After a period of time called the "dwell. Some Examples: Liquid Penetrant Tested Sample (Ref Appendix C fig 8) Detection of Defect using Black-light (Ref Appendix C fig 9) . The technique is based on the ability of a liquid to be drawn into a "clean" surface breaking flaw by capillary action.Penetrant Testing (PT) Liquid penetration inspection is a method that is used to reveal surface breaking flaws by bleed-out of a colored or fluorescent dye from the flaw." It draws the Penetrant from the flaw to reveal its presence. Colored (contrast) penetrates require good white light while fluorescent penetrates need to be used in darkened conditions with an ultraviolet "black light".

Table for Dwell time .

automotive. or some of their alloys. Underwater inspection is another area where magnetic particle inspection may be used to test items such as offshore structures and underwater pipelines. forgings. Many different industries use magnetic particle inspection for determining a component's fitness-for-use. Ferromagnetic materials are materials that can be magnetized to a level that will allow the inspection to be effective. petrochemical. power generation. The method is used to inspect a variety of product forms such as castings. cobalt. and weldments. These characteristics make MPI one of the most widely utilized nondestructive testing methods. such as iron filings to detect flaws in components. nickel.Magnetic Particle Testing(MT) Magnetic particle inspection is a nondestructive testing method used for defect detection. The only requirement from an inspectability standpoint is that the component being inspected must be made of a ferromagnetic material such iron. . MPI uses magnetic fields and small magnetic particles. MPI is a fast and relatively easy to apply and part surface preparation is not as critical as it is for some other NDT methods. and aerospace industries. Some examples of industries that use magnetic particle inspection are the structural steel.

size. Driven by the pulser. Signal travel time can be directly related to the distance that the signal traveled. and more. transducer. part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves. information about the reflector location. . a typical pulse/echo inspection configuration as illustrated below will be used. the transducer generates high frequency ultrasonic energy. To illustrate the general inspection principle. dimensional measurements. The reflected wave signal is transformed into electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation. material characterization. orientation and other features can sometimes be gained. From the signal. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path. such as the pulser/receiver. A pulser/receiver is an electronic device that can produce high voltage electrical pulse. and display devices.Ultrasonic Testing Methods(UT) Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. A typical UT inspection system consists of several functional units.

Beam spread is greater when using a low frequency transducer than when using a high frequency transducer. Second. beam spread lowers the amplitude of reflections since sound fields are less concentrated and. . Beam spread is largely determined by the frequency and diameter of the transducer. some of the energy will get transferred off at an angle. At the start of the far field. Beam angle is an important consideration in transducer selection for a couple of reasons.Beam spread occurs because the vibrating particle of the material (through which the wave is traveling) do not always transfer all of their energy in the direction of wave propagation. (Picture what happens when one ball hits another second ball slightly off center). First. If the particles are not directly aligned in the direction of wave propagation. Characterization of the sound field generated by a transducer is a prerequisite to understanding observed signals. As the diameter of the transducer increases the beam spread will be reduced. Recall that waves propagate through that transfer of energy from one particle to another in the medium. however. the beam strength is always greatest at the center of the beam and diminishes as it spreads outward. In the near field constructive and destructive wave interference fill the sound field with fluctuation. beam spread may result in more difficult to interpret signals due to reflections from the lateral sides of the test object or other features outside of the inspection area. therefore. weaker.

DESCRIPTION I SHELL/DRUM 1 L’ SEAMS (Ref. UW-11/Table UW-12 & UCS-57) RT 100% UT - MT - PT - C’ SEAMS (Ref. UW-11(4)/Table UW-12 & UCS-57) RT 100% TUBES/ PIPES/ STAND PIPES/ HEADERS (Ref.) RT 100% UT - MT - PT - 2 II III Notes : ASME SECT. UW-11/Table UW-12 & UCS-57) RT 100% UT - MT - PT - Nozzle But Welds (Ref. I .SR. VIII DIV. UW-11(a)(2)) >NPS 10or>29 mm (Wall Thk.NO.

Appendix C Non-Destructive Testing DP Test Fig 8 Fig 9 DP Test Result Fig 10 .

Non-Destructive Testing MT Test Fig 14 MT Yoke Test Set-up Magnetic Field Strength Checkup Fig 16 Non-Destructive Testing Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 MT With Powder Crack Detection thru MPI Fig 15 Crack Detection thru MPI .

MT Test Fluorescent Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 .

Non-Destructive Testing Radiography Films Fig 21 Cold Lap Fig 23 Cluster Porosity Fig 25 Lack of Penetration Fig 27 Suck Back Fig 29 External Undercut Fig 22 Porosity Fig 24 Slag Inclusion Fig 26 Incomplete Fusion Fig 28 Internal Undercut Fig 30 Offset or Mismatch .

l Fig 31 underfil Fig 32 Over Fill Fig 34 Tungsten Inclusion Fig 33 Crack Fig 35 Oxide Inclusion .

Ultrasonic Probe Cross-Section .

Destructive Testing Fig 36 Fig 37 .

Bend test jig dimensions .

Successful bend test Fig 39 Unsuccessful bend test Fig 40 .

All weld metal test specimen weld tension test Fig 42 tension test specimen Fig 40 Transverse weld Fig 41 Longitudinal .

fillet welds Hardness scan .butt weld Fig 43 Fig 44 .Hardness scan .

Charpy vee-notch impact testing machine Fig 45 Charpy vee-notch specimen holder Fig 46 .

Charpy vee-notch specimen dimensions Fig 47 Impact energy vs temperature Fig 48 Fractured charpy vee-notch specimen Fig 49 .

Izod specimen set up Fig 50 Izod impact specimen dimensions Fig 51 .