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WRITING PROCESS

A Step-by-step
Overview

PLANNING
COMPOSIN
G
PROOFREADIN
G

STAGE

ANALYZING
TOPIC

1:

PLANNING

GENERATIN

ORGANIZIN

IDEAS

IDEAS

Elements of Communication

ANALYZING GENRE

After graduating from New Castle University in 1987,


I spent two years travelling around the world (Europe,
India, Malaysia, Australia, South America). In the course
of the second year, I became fluent in Portuguese and
worked as an aerobics instructor and tennis coach for six
month in So Paulo. After that I returned to New Castle
in June 89 and worked as Community Liaison Officer on
the Byker Community Arts Program.

It is a 12 year-old faded-blue 80-litre Sisyphus


rucksack made of thick cotton . The only external pocket,
on top of the bag, is ripped, and one of the two
aluminum tubes that make up the internal frame has
broken through the canvas at the bottom. The arm
straps and the two small straps with buckles on either
side are gold-colored; there is no waist strap. There is an
embroidered badge on the top pocket, a souvenir of the
Lake District.

Since the late 1990s internet-based teaching has emerged


as a potential rival to traditional classroom learning. The
former normally involves having access to a secure site on
the internet where a graded series of lessons is available,
which

have

Although

assignments

online

sent

courses

are

and

returned

by

email.

offered

by

many

now

institutions, it is by no means clear that they offer real


advantages

compared

with

classroom

education.

Little

research has been done so far on their effectiveness, but this


essay sets out to examine the arguments on both sides and
attempts to draw conclusions from them.

If grades only reflected achievement, there would be


almost no point in going to school because almost every
student would take the easiest courses, or they would cheat,
or find some other wayany way that worksto get that
good grade. Meanwhile, they would learn nothing. On the
other hand, if students know that a good grade will come
only after they put effort into their classes, not only will they
work harder, but they would also learn something. In such
cases, students will determine to put all they can into their
studies. The easy way out will not pave the way to a high
quality transcript.

Read the topic


CAREFULLY

NARROW the topic:


short but sharp

Elements of Communication

GENERATING IDEAS

Choose the MAIN idea


(statement of your
opinion)

Theres an old proverb: Spare the rod


and spoil the child.
Which is a more effective mean in teaching
children to behave in a certain way to
promise rewards or to instill a fear of
punishment.

ORGANIZING IDEAS

Decide what should


come first, second, third.

COMPOSING
INTRODUCTIO
N
MAIN BODY
CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION

Reveal the
main idea

Draw the
readers
interest

PRACTICE

MAIN BODY
PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE
Topic sentence
Reason
Example
Details

Example

Your own observation


Your own experience
Studies
Readings

CONCLUSION
Restate your opinion in a
different way

PROOFREADING
Check for clarity
Check for grammar
Check for coherence