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ALKALINE INJECTION

By :
Septoratno Siregar

ALKALINE INJECTION
General

Alkaline injection is a process where pH of


the injected water is being controlled in 12
13 range to increase oil recovery
Rock characteristics can affect alkaline
injection process

ALKALINE INJECTION
General

Screening criteria:

Reservoir is suitable for water injection


No fracture present
No gas cap
Reservoir temperature < 200oF
Injectivity should be sufficiently high
Sandstone reservoir

ALKALINE INJECTION
General

Screening criteria:

Oil viscosity < 200 cp


Oil acid number > 0.2 mg KOH/gr crude oil
Interfacial force tension between crude oil and
caustic solution < 0.01 dyne/cm

Chemicals: NaOH, KOH, NH4OH,


Na3(PO4), Na2CO3, etc

ALKALINE INJECTION
Displacement Mechanism

Lowering Interfacial Tension

Generally injected water has capillary number


10-6
Oil recovery can be increased by lowering
interfacial tension 100 to 1000 times (capillary
number raise up to 10-4 or 10-2)
Alkaline solution can lower interfacial tension

ALKALINE INJECTION
Displacement Mechanism

Lowering Interfacial Tension

This mechanism is related to acid number,


gravitational force, and viscosity
Acid number is amount of KOH in mg required
to neutralize 1 gr of crude oil to have pH = 7
Acid number > 0.5 mg KOH/ gr crude oil

ALKALINE INJECTION
Displacement Mechanism

The Change of wettability from oil wet to


water wet can improve mobility ratio
The change of wettability from water wet to
oil wet
Emulsification and entrapment

This process can improve vertical and


horizontal sweep efficiency

ALKALINE INJECTION

Displacement Mechanism
Emulsification and entrainment

Dissolving rigid interfacial film

ALKALINE INJECTION
Laboratory Programs
Considerations of laboratory programs:
Acid Number

0.5 mg KOH/ gram crude oil


Sample should be free of emulsion breaker,
inhibitor, other chemicals

Decreasing of interfacial tension

ALKALINE INJECTION
Laboratory Programs
Considerations of laboratory programs:
Decreasing of interfacial tension

Alkaline oil interfacial tension < 0.01 dyne/cm

Wettability reversal
Emulsion forming
Rigid film
Mineral reservoir rock reaction

ALKALINE INJECTION
Field Operation

Water injection can be enhanced into


alkaline injection by adding caustic
materials
Do Laboratory test to determine optimum
alkaline concentration
The main problem is the acceleration of
plugging by gypsum at the production well

ALKALINE INJECTION
Application

Singleton Field, Nebraska (USA)

1962, injection water


Sor = 40 % ; Area of test = 50 acres
Average permeability = 330 md
Injected slug = 60650 bbl of water containing 2 %
NaOH
Alteration water injection to alkaline injection
Production increasing up to 28 bopd
Recovery 6 % of OOIP

ALKALINE INJECTION
Application

Midway Sunset, California (USA)

NaOH concentration : 1%
Area of test: 100acres ; 11 production wells and 3
emulsion injection wells
Using radioactive tracer (shows that emulsion injection
lowering water channel)
Fresh water is injected before and after slug emulsion
injection to hold salt water emulsion injection
Emulsion slug 3% PV of testing area
Additional recovery : 12.5% OIP

ALKALINE INJECTION

The End
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