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The earliest patent on gas turbine was that

of the Englishman, John Barber, in year


1879.

Early designs were unsuccessful due to


some factors.

Serious development of the gas turbine


began only after the second world war with
the shaft power in mind.

Process 1-2:

Isentropic compression in the compressor


Process 2-3:

Addition of heat at constant pressure


Process 3-4:

Isentropic expansion of air


Process 4-1:

Rejection of heat at constant pressure

Gas turbine functions in the same way as


the Compressed Ignition Engine. It sucks in
air from the atmosphere, compresses it.

The fuel is injected and ignited. The gases


expand doing work and finally exhausts
outside.

The only difference is instead of the


reciprocating motion, gas turbine uses a
rotary motion throughout.

1.

Compressor

2.

Combuster

3.

Turbine

BASIC COMPONENTS

The compressor sucks the air from the atmosphere


and compresses it and guides it to the combustion
chamber.

This

is an annular chamber where the fuel


burns and is similar to the furnace in a boiler.
The air from the compressor is the Combustion
air.

Stationary

guide vanes of turbine direct the


gases to the next set of blades. The kinetic
energy of the hot gases impacting on the
blades rotates the blades and the shaft.

Actual view of gas turbine

A.

On basis of combustion process:


1. Continuous combustion or Constant pressure type
2. The explosion or constant volume type
B. On basis of path of working substance:
1. Open cycle gas turbine
2. Closed cycle gas turbine
C. On basis of action of expanding gases:
1. Impluse turbine
2. Impulse- Reaction turbine
D. On the basis of direction of flow:
1. Axial flow
2. Radial flow

Fresh

air is drawn into the


compressor from
atmosphere.
Heat

is added by
combustion of fuel.
Exhaust

from turbine is
released in atmosphere.
Arrangement

of continuous
replacement of working
medium is required.

In

this , cycle is closed


and exhaust is not open
to atmosphere.
In

this there is
continuously supply of
same working gas.
Higher

density gases
like hydrogen or carbon
dioxide is used.
So

we get higher
efficiency then open
cycle GT.

Applications
Applications
Turbojet engines
Marine field
Supercharging
Railway engines
Generation of electric
power
Industry

Nearly all the military aircrafts are powered by gas turbine.


These are used for the higher generation of power in plane.

As there is cut off the auxilliary engine gas turbine gets


started.
As the speed of the plane increases the compressor gets
rotated and compresses the air and that get combusted in
combustion chamber.
Then the exhaust gases are thrown out.

Working of Gas Turbine

Very high power-to-weight ratio, compared to


reciprocating engines.

Smaller than most reciprocating engines of the


same power rating.

Fewer moving parts than reciprocating engines

Low operating pressures & High operation


speeds.

Low lubricating oil cost and consumption.

Higher Cost.

Less efficient than reciprocating engines at


idle.

Longer startup than reciprocating engines.

Less responsive to changes in power


demand compared to reciprocating engines.


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