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MYCOLOGY

What is Mycology?
Mycology

is the study of fungi

Fungus Family
yeast

Molds

Unicellular
Budding fungus

Multicellular
Threadlike

Eukaryotic organism
No chlorophyll
Have cell walls

General
Characteristics

Filamentous structure
Produce spores
Grow as saprophytes
Decompose dead organic
material

Classification of Fungi
Zygomycetes
Ascomycetes
Basidiomycetes
Deuteromycetes

Mycoses
Is

a disease cause by fungi


Superficial mycoses

Divided into four

Systemic mycoses

Subcutaneous mycoses

Superficial
mycoses

Unable to penetrate body


Effect keratinizing tissue
Outer layer of skin
Hair
Nails
Least damaging mycoses

Ringwo
rm

(tinea)

Example

Infects:

Tissue below skin


Can infect lymphatic system

ple
exam

Subcutaneous
mycoses

Infects:

Systemic
mycoses

Organs
Invading throughout body
Most damaging
ex
a

m
ple

Specimen collecting
Scraping

of skin/ nails/ hair


plucked from infected areas ( for
dermatophytosis )
Swab/ body fluids (for suspected
candidiasis/cryptococcis)

Laboratory Diagnosis

Microscopy
Place the specimen on slide
Heat the slide & add 10% KOH
Add stain:
Methylene blue/ lactophenol/ ink
Culturing
Sabouraud dextrose
agar

Potato dextrose agar

Cornmeal agar

Sabouraud dextrose agar.


Potato dextrose agar
Cornmeal agar
Brain heart infusion agar
2-4 weeks at 37 C and RT

Brain heart infusion


agar

Serology
Identify the antibodies to specific fungal
antigen on patients serum.
Antigen detection
Finding specific antigen by using specific
antibody
Cutaneous test
Allergy test with fungal antigen

Nucleic acid detection


Rapid detection of mycoses in
immunocompromised patient

Yeasts

*Candida Albicans

Candida Albicans
Kingdom:Fungi
Phylum:Ascomycota
Subphylum:Saccharomycotina
Class:Saccharomycetes
Order:Saccharomycetales
Family:Saccharomycetaceae
Genus:Candida
Species:C.

albicans
Disease: Candidiasis

Pathogenicity:
* Candidiasis
* Comensal in GIT
* Candida infection-opportunistic,
associated with prolonged
broa-spectrum antibiontic therapy

Treatment:
* Amphotericin B,Caspofungin, or fluconazole for
systemic infections
*Fluconazole or caspofungin for oral or esophageal
infections
* Topical azole for vaginal infections

Morphology: yeast, single budding &


pseudohyphae-gram positive.
Culture: Sabouraud agar & most routinelu used
becteriological media.
Sample: blood culture, wound culture and tissue
biopsy.

Diagnosis: A medical history, physical exam, and


laboratory tests, including blood tests, blood
cultures, and wound cultures may be done. Tissue
biopsy may be necessary to diagnose invasive
systemic disease.

Prevention:Keeping skin clean, dry,


and free from abrasions or cuts can
help prevent skin candida infections.

Dermatophytes
Aspergillus

species
Example of
(Aspergillosis)

Molds

Dermatophytes
Pathogenicity
Cause infections of the skin,hair and nails due to their
ability to obtain nutrients from keratinized material
Do not invade living tissue but colonize the outer
layer of the skin
Morphology & culture
Culture on a small media called Dermatophytes Test
Medium (DTM) @ room temperature:turn bright red
after 10-14 days

Sample
Scraping from nail,hair or skin
Diagnosis
Fungal culture
Microscopic examination(prepare slide)
Prevention
Avoid contact with infected host

Aspergillus species
Pathogenicity
Common contaminants of starchy food
(bread,potatoes)
Produces dry,hydrophobic spores that
are easily inhaled
Cause infection to human and animals
(infection to the external ear,skin
lesions,ulcers)

Morphology & culture


Culture on potato dextrose agar plate at 30 oC and
incubate for 5 days.
Sample
Throat swab
Diagnosis
Fungal culture
Chest X-ray
Prevention
Wear masks or respirator when in contaminated places

Colony morphology of
Aspergillus vagentum

Example of

Dimorphic fungi

Histoplasma capsulatum
(histoplasmosis)
Coccidiodes immitis
(coccidiomycosis)

to
e
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ab
st
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a
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e
Fun as y
w
gro oulds
or m

Histoplasma capsulatum
Pathogenicity
Cause histoplasmosis
Breathed in through a persons lungs
Can be serious with infants, people with weakened immune
system or who have chronic disease
Morphology and culture
on Sabouraud dextrose agar @ 25C : white cottony mycelium
after 2 3 weeks
Mold form has spore named tuberculate macroconidium
@ 37C yeast appears : white tan colony

Sample
Urine,
serum,
other

body fluids

Diagnosis
fungal

culture
Fungal stain or blood test
Chest X-ray or computerized tomography (CT) scan

Prevention
Wear

masks or respirator when in places contaminated with bird or bat droppings


Spray contaminated areas with water which will help keep the spores from being
release.

Histoplasma in
yeast form

Spores of
histoplasma spp

Coccidiodes immitis
Pathogenicity
Cause coccidiodomycosis ; a pulmonary disease
Desert soil, pottery, archaelogical middens,
cotton, and rodent are all harbour of C.immitis
Morphology and culture
On Sabouraud agar : grow as mold in 2 weeks
Barrel- shaped (smaller at the edges, wider at
middle) asexual spore

Specimen
Sputum,

pus from skin lesion, gastric washing, CSF, biopsy


material from skin lesions

Diagnosis
Complement-fixaton
Slide agglutination
Immunodiffusion
Prevention
Maintain general good health
Prevent other cause of damage to the immune system

Coccidioides immitis in yeast form

Yeast-like of coccidioides
immitis

Tata.