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INTRODUCTION OF

PERIODIC
TABLE

Presented By:

HAMBA ALLAH

May 2016
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Introductio
n
The periodic table is made up of rows of
elements and columns.
An element is identified by its chemical
symbol.
The number above the symbol is the atomic
number
The number below the symbol is the rounded
atomic weight of the element.
A row is called a period
A column is called a group

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Periodic
Table Table

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Introduction

The elements
can be grouped
into three
broad classes
based on their
general
properties.

Metal
Non-Metal
Metalloids
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Properties Of
Metals
Metals are good conductors of heat and
electricity.
Metals are ductile (can be stretched into
thin wires).
Metals are malleable (can be pounded
into thin sheets).
A chemical property of metal is its
reaction with water which results in
corrosion.

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Properties of NonMetals
Non-metals are poor conductors of
heat and electricity.
Non-metals are not ductile or
malleable.
Solid non-metals are brittle and break
easily.

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Properties Of
Metalloids
Metalloids (metal-like) have
properties of both metals and nonmetals..
They conduct heat and electricity
better than non-metals but not as
well as metals.
They are ductile and malleable.

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Importances of The Topics


The periodic table is the most important chemistry
reference there is. It arranges all the known
elements in an informative array. Elements are
arranged left to right and top to bottom in order of
increasing atomic number. Order generally
coincides with increasing atomic mass.
Reveals a lot about the reactivity of an
element, whether it is likely to conduct
electricity, whether it is hard or soft, and many
other characteristics
It helps predict the types of
chemical reactions that are likely for
an element.

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Classifying of
Elements
The periodic table
displays the
symbols and
names of the
elements along
with information
about the
structure of their
atoms.

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Properties
GROUP

PERIOD

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Properties
Four chemical groups of the
periodic table:

i. Alkali metals (IA)


ii. Alkaline earth
metals (IIA)
iii. Halogens (VII)
iv. Noble gases (VIIIA)
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i.

Alkali Metals
(IA)
Atoms of the alkali metals have a
single electron in their outermost
level, in other words, 1 valence
electron.
They are shiny, have the
consistency of clay, and are
easily cut with a knife.
They are the most reactive
metals.
They react violently with water.
Alkali metals are never found as
free elements in nature. They are

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ii. Alkaline Earth Metals


(IIA)

They are never found


uncombined in nature.
They have two valence
electrons.
Alkaline earth metals
include magnesium and
calcium, among others.
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Example of Materials

The hydrogen square sits atop


group AI, but it is not a member
of that group. Hydrogen is in a
class of its own.
Its a gas at room temperature.
It has one proton and one
electron in its one and only
energy level.
Hydrogen only needs 2
electrons to fill up its valence
shell.
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Conclusio
n
The periodic table is one of the most
important achievements in the field of
chemistry.
It is full of patterns that enable us to better
understand the world around us.
Without it, we would not have many of the
products and medicine that we have today.
The information gained from the periodic
table can open up numerous windows of
knowledge about the entire universe we live
in.

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