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Diarrhea from dirty water

has killed 9 in Zamboanga

City since March
By Roel Pareo ( | May 4,

Diarrhea caused by contaminated water has killed

nine people in Zamboanga City so far, health officials
The Department of Health regional office for the
Zamboanga Peninsula also corrected its earlier
report that the diarrhea outbreak was caused by a
norovirus, a coomon cause of gastroenteritis.
The National Epidemiology Bureau from central
office that conducted the investigation found out it is
a severe rotavirus outbreak, said Dr. Agnes Mabolo,
acting chief of DOH-9's local health support unit.

Mabolo said about 65 percent of the collected water

samples tested positive for fecal matter.
The main contaminant -- the sole contaminant is
water. It is the water that is contaminated, Mabolo
It will be recalled that water rationing has been
implemented in the city since January due to the dry
spell brought about by the El Nio weather
phenomenon. City Health Officer Dr. Rodel Agbulos
reported the gastroenteritis outbreak has already
claimed 9 lives and has downed 1,539 people from
March to late April.

Mabolo said that number does not include 400

inmates also affected by diarrhea.
She said there is already a decrease in the
number of diarrhea patients admitted to
According to the World Health Organization,
diarrhea is the second leading cause of death
in children under five years old, especially if the
patient is malnourished. Diarrhea, which can be
caused by gastrointestinal disease of irritation,
can kill through excessive dehydration.


1. Surface water- a
type of water that
can be perceived.
( lakes, rivers or

2. Groundwater- water
stored in open spaces
within the underground
rocks and

3. Precipitationthe most
element of
weather. It can

water is

1. One could not breathe easily

without his lungs tissue being

2. Evaporation of water from our
skin helps to regulate our body
3. The elimination of body
wastes through the kidney
requires water.

Pure Water
1. Drinking Water
a. Foul water- a kind of water
which is stored for a long time.
b. Safe water- contains some
impurities but these impurities
are harmless.
This is the usual water that we
c. Pure water- contains no

2. Soft water- does not contain

dissolve salts of calcium,
magnesium and iron.
3. Hard water- water
containing quantities of
calcium, magnesium and iron

a. Temporary hard water-contains the

bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium.
Temporary hardness can be removed by
b. Permanent hard water- contains
sulfate, chlorides of calcium, magnesium
and iron. Hardness can only be removed
by chemical softeners such as sodium
carbonate, sodium tetrabonate or


4. Heavy watercomposed of
deuterium oxide
molecule. Deuterium
is an isotope with
atomic weight of 2
and is designated


1. Artesian Water- comes from a

well in a confined aquifer. The
water level in well must stand at
some height above the top of the
aquifer. It is also known as
artesian well water.
2. Flouridated water- It contain
fluoride that is added within the

3. Mineral water- it
contains no less than 250
parts per million (ppm)
total dissolves solids being
the minerals in the water.
4. Purified waterproduced by distillation,
deionization, reverse
osmosis or other suitable

5. Sparkling wateris water into which carbon

dioxide gas under pressure
has been dissolved. Also
known as carbonated water.
6. Spring water- is the result of
an aquifer being filled to the
point that the water overflows
onto the land surface

7. Sterile water- is water that

has been sterilized, to ensure
an absence of any bacteria in
the water. It is used for mixing
infant formula for babies.
8. Well water- comes from a
hole that is stored in the
ground or buckets.

ic Cycle

1. Evaporation- The transformation of

water from liquid to gas phases as it
moves from the ground or bodies of water
into the overlying atmosphere.
2. Sublimation- The state change directly
from solid water (snow or ice) to water
3. Transpiration- The release of water
vapor from plants and soil into the air.
Water vapor is a gas that cannot be

4. Condensation-Condensationis
the change of the physical
state of matterfromgas phaseinto
liquid phase, and is the reverse of
5. Advection- is the process that
moves water, regardless of its state,
throughout the atmosphere.
6. Precipitation- the process of
transformation of water which the
condensed water vapor falls to the
earths surface. This might be in the

7. Runoff- Runofcan be
described as the part of
thewater cyclethat flows
over land as
surfacewaterinstead of
being absorbed into
groundwater or evaporating.
8. Infiltration- is the flow of
water from the ground


1. Sedimentation- water is allowed to flow

into setting tanks where most of the large,
suspended solids settle to the bottom. The
partly clear water then undergoes further
2. Flocculation or coagulation- alum and
lime or ferrous sulfate and lime are added in
order to make fine particles of clay, sand
and organic matter to form clocs. Aluminum
sulfate reacts with water forming aluminum
hydroxides, a gelatinous precipitate that
drags suspended materials along with it.

Filtration- consists of passing thru layers

of sand and gravel and even charcoal to
absorb coloring matter.
Chlorination- is the addition of chlorine in
the amount of one part chlorine per
million parts water to destroy
Aeration- popular way of removing
unpleasant taste and objectionable odor
in water. In this process, water is prayed
into air and sunlight.