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2005EHR Organisational Behaviour

Lecture: Week 6

Motivation and Work

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Lecture objectives
1. Outline the motivation process
2. Describe key motivation theories
3. Explain how contemporary theories of motivation
complement each other
4. Discuss ways in which employees can be
motivated by changing the work environment

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

What Is Motivation?
Motivation
The factors that account for an individuals
intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward
attaining a goal

Key Elements
Intensity: How hard a person tries
Direction: Toward beneficial goal
Persistence: How long a person tries

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Having
Having Little
Little Ambition
Ambition

Theory
Theory XX

Managers
ManagersSee
SeeWorkers
Workersas
as

Disliking
Disliking Work
Work
Avoiding
Avoiding Responsibility
Responsibility

McGregor
Theory
Theory YY

Managers
Managers See
SeeWorkers
Workersas
as

Self-Directed
Self-Directed
Enjoying
Enjoying Work
Work
Accepting
Accepting Responsibility
Responsibility

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow)


Higher and lower needs
Move up hierarchy in order
Move to next higher level
only when all needs at
current (lower) level are
satisfied

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Self-determination theory
People prefer to feel they have control over their
actions so anything that makes a previously
enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than
freely chosen activity will undermine motivation

Providing extrinsic reward for behaviour previously only


intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall level of
motivation

May be relevant only to jobs that are neither


extremely dull nor extremely interesting

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory


Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites
of same thing - are separate constructs

Hygiene
HygieneFactors:
Factors:
Salary
Salary
Work
WorkConditions
Conditions
Company
CompanyPolicies
Policies

Extrinsic and Related


to Dissatisfaction

Intrinsic and Related to


Satisfaction

Motivators:
Motivators:
Achievement
Achievement
Responsibility
Responsibility
Growth
Growth

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)


Basic premise: Specific and difficult goals, with
self-generated feedback, lead to higher
performance
But relationship between goals and performance
will depend on:

'I want to do it & I can do it'


Goal commitment
Task characteristics (simple, well-learned)
National culture

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Goals and self-efficacy


Self Efficacy is an individuals feeling that they can
do task

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Equity Theory
Individuals compare their job inputs and
outcomes with those of others and then respond
to eliminate any inequities

Referent
ReferentComparisons:
Comparisons:
Self-inside
Self-inside
Self-outside
Self-outside
Other-inside
Other-inside
Other-outside
Other-outside
Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Equity Theory (contd)


Actions to correct inequity

Example

Reduce our inputs

Less organisational citizenship

Increase our outcomes

Ask for pay increase

Increase others inputs

Ask co-worker to work harder

Reduce others outputs

Ask boss to stop giving other


preferred treatment

Change our perceptions

Start thinking that others perks arent


really so valuable

Change comparison other

Compare self to someone closer to


your situation

Leave the field

Quit job

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Model of Organisational Justice

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Expectancy Theory
All three links must be intact to motivate

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Integrating theories of motivation

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Applications: Linking Motivation &


Performance

Source: Adapted from M. Blumberg and C.D. Pringle, 'The Missing Opportunity in organizational Research: Some Implications for a Theory of
Work Performance,' Academy of Management Review, October 1982, p. 565.
Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Applications: Work Design


Job Characteristics Model
Identifies five job characteristics and their
relationship to personal and work outcomes
Characteristics:
Characteristics:
Skill
Skillvariety
varietyhow
howmany
manydifferent
differentskills
skillsare
areused
used
Task
Taskidentity
identitycompletion
completionof
ofwork
workfrom
fromstart
startto
tofinish
finish
Task
Tasksignificance
significanceimpact
impacton
onwork
workor
orlives
livesof
ofothers
others
Autonomy
Autonomydeciding
decidingwork
workprocedures
proceduresand
andscheduling
scheduling
Feedback
Feedbackeffective
effectivecompletion
completionof
ofwork
workisisclear
clear
Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Job Characteristics Model

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Applications: Work Design Practices


Job Rotation
Periodic shifting of workers from one task to another

Job Enlargement
Horizontal expansion of jobs

Job Enrichment
Vertical expansion of jobs

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Applications: Performance
management

Key
KeyElements
Elements
1.1. Goal
Goalspecificity
specificity
2.2. Participative
Participativedecision
decision
making
making
3.3. An
Anexplicit
explicittime
timeperiod
period
4.4. Performance
Performancefeedback
feedback
Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Applications: Rewards
What to pay (internal versus external equity)
How to pay (e.g., piece rate, merit based,
bonuses, profit sharing, gain sharing, ESOPs,
skill-based pay)
What benefits to offer (e.g., flexible benefits)
How to recognise employees

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Applications: Recognition
Intrinsic rewards: stimulate intrinsic motivation
Personal attention given to employee
Approval and appreciation for a job well done
Growing in popularity and usage

Benefits & drawbacks

Fulfil employees desire for recognition


Inexpensive to implement
Encourages repetition of desired behaviours
Susceptible to manipulation by management

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Applications: Employee Involvement


Theory
TheoryYY
(Believing
(Believing
Employees
EmployeesWant
Want
to
toBe
BeInvolved)
Involved)

Employee
Employee
Involvement
Involvement
Programs
Programs

Two-Factor
Two-Factor
Theory
Theory

((Intrinsic
Intrinsic

Motivation)
Motivation)

ERG
ERGTheory
Theory

Employee
EmployeeNeeds:
Needs:
Existence
Existence
Relatedness
Relatedness
Growth
Growth

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Examples of Employee Involvement


Participative management

Workers share significant degree of decision-making


power with immediate superiors

Representative participation

Workers participate in decision making at different


levels through representative employees

Board representative

Staff have (nominated/elected/appointed)


representative on company board

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Implications for Managers


Recognise individual differences
Use goals and feedback
Allow employees to participate in decisions that
affect them
Link rewards to performance
Check the system for equity
Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition

Next week

Lecture 7
Leadership

Copyright Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition