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 When we are producing components by
various methods of manufacturing process it is
not possible to produce perfectly smooth
surface and some irregularities are formed.
 These irregularities causes some serious
difficulties in using the components.
 So it is very important to correct the surfaces
before use.

The factors which
roughness are:

Work piece material
Machining type
Tool, and




Reasons for Controlling Surface Texture:
(1) To improve the service life of the components
(2) To improve the fatigue resistance
(3) To reduce initial wear of parts
(4) To have a close dimensional tolerance on the parts
(5) To reduce frictional wear
(6) To reduce corrosion by minimizing depth of
(7) For good appearance.
(8) If the surface is not smooth enough, a turning shaft
may act like a reamer and the piston rod like a broach.

 The geometrical irregularities can be classified as 1. First order 2. Third order 4. Fourth order . Second order 3.

First Order Irregularities: The irregularities caused by inaccuracies in the machine tool itself are called as first order irregularities. (2) Surface regularities arising due to deformation of work under the action of cutting forces. and (3) Due to the weight of the material itself. These include: (1) Irregularities caused due to lack of straightness of guide ways on which the tool most moves. . 1.

3. Second order irregularities  These are caused by vibrations. handling . 4. 2. Fourth order irregularities  These are caused by improper machines and equipment's. Third order irregularities  These are caused by machining.

Irregularities on the surface of the  part The irregularities on the surface of the part produced can also be grouped into two categories: (i) Roughness or primary texture. . (ii) Waviness or secondary texture.

tool feed rate or by some other disturbances such as friction. i) Primary texture (Roughness):  The surface irregularities of small wavelength are called primary texture or roughness.  These are caused by direct action of the cutting elements on the material i. wear or corrosion. . cutting tool shape.e.  These include irregularities of third and fourth order and constitute the micro-geometrical errors..

where Ir = length along the surface and hr = deviation of surface from the ideal one. .  The ratio lr / hr denoting the micro-errors is less than 50.

misalignment of centres. vibrations of any kind etc.  These irregularities result due to inaccuracies of slides. non-linear feed motion. . deformation of work under the action of cutting forces. (ii) Secondary texture (Waviness):  The surface irregularities of considerable wavelength of a periodic character are called secondary texture or waviness. wear of guides.

Where. Iw = length along the surface and kw = deviation of surface from ideal one.  The ratio of Iw / hw denoting the macro-errors is more than 50. .  These errors include irregularities of first and second order and constitute the macrogeometrical errors.

Contour of any section through a surface. .Lay:. 2.Profile:.Direction of the ‘predominate surface pattern’ produced by the tool marks or scratches.Elements of surfacetexture 1.

Surface irregularities or imperfection. It is also called primary texture. 7. 3.Finely spaced irregularities. 5.Length of profile necessary for the evaluation of the irregularities.Surface irregularities which are of greater spacing than roughness. 4. 6. Roughness:.Sampling lengths:.Surface of a part which is actually obtained.Actual surface:. Flaws:. Waviness:. . which occur at infrequent intervals.

Line dividing the effective profile such that within the sampling length. Centre line of profile:. . 9. 10. Roughness height:. 8.Distance parallel to the normal surface between successive peaks. Roughness width:. Sample Length: It is the length of the profile necessary for the evaluation of the irregularities to be taken into account.Line dividing the effectiveness profile such that the areas embraced b profile above and below the line are equal. 10. 11. Mean line of profile:.Rated as the arithmetical average deviation.

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From factor . 2. The average roughness method.Analysis of surface finish  The analysis of surface finish being carried out by 1. Peak to valley height method 3.

Average roughness measurement  The assessment of average roughness is carried out by a. b Root mean square (RMS) c Ten point method . Centre line average (CLA).

.A.L. C. method  The surface roughness is measured as the average deviation from the nominal surface.

..  Let. . method  The roughness is measured as the average deviation from the nominal surface. are the heights of the ordinates and L is the sampling length..h2. h1.S. R.M.

 Ten point height method  The average difference between five highest peaks and five lowest valleys of surface is taken and irregularities are calculated by .

= Maximum peak to valley height  V=Valley  P = Peak. .  R.  Here Rmax = Maximum peak to valley height in one sampling lengths.Peak to valley height  method  Peak to valley height measures the maximum depth of the surface irregularities over a given sample length and largest value of the depth is accepted for the measurement.

 So we cannot completely define the properties of the irregularities.  The drawback in this method is that it may read the same height Rmax for two largely different textures. .

. such that the length lying within the peaks at the top is 5% of the trace length and that with the valleys at the bottom is 10% of the trace length.  To overcome this P-V. height is defined as the distance between a pair of lines parallel to the centerline.

Form factor   It is obtained by measuring the area of material above the arbitrarily chosen base line in the section and the area of the enveloping rectangle. .

Direct Instrument Measurements .Methods of measuring  finish surface The methods used for measuring the surface finish is classified into 1. Inspection by comparison 2.

 The surface to be tested is compared with known value of roughness specimen and finished by similar machining process. Microscopic Inspection. Wallace surface Dynamometer. Touch Inspection. Visual Inspection. 6. 4. 8. . Surface photographs. Reflected Light Intensity. 5. 2. 7. 3. Micro Interferometer.Inspection by comparison  methods  In these methods the surface texture is assessed by observation of the surface. Scratch Inspection.  The various methods which are used for comparison are 1.

Touch Inspection  It is used when surface roughness is very high and in this method the fingertip is moved along the surface at a speed of 25mm/second and the irregularities as up to 0.0125 mm can be detected. 2. 1. Visual Inspection  :In this method the surface is inspected by naked eye and this measurement is limited through surfaces. .

The impression of this scratches on the surface produced is then visualized. Scratch Inspection:  The materials like lead. . The light beam also used to check the finished surface by projecting the light about 60° to the work 4. Microscopic Inspection:  In this method finished surface is placed under the microscopic and compared with the surface under inspection. 3. plastics rubbed on surface is inspected by this method.

 5. 6. . The defects like irregularities are appear as dark spots and flat portion of the surface appears as bright. Surface Photographs  :Magnified photographs of the surface are taken with different types of illumination. Micro-Interferometer  :Optical flat is placed on the surface to be inspected and illuminated by a monochromatic source of light.

 7. Reflected light Intensity  :A beam of light is projected on the surface to be inspected and the light intensity variation on the surface is measured by a photocell and this measured value is calibrated 8. Wallace surface Dynamometer  :It consists of a pendulum in which the testing shoes are clamped to a bearing surface and a pre determined spring pressure can be applied and then the pendulum is lifted to its initial starting position and allowed to swing over the surface to be tested .

 These methods are quantitative analysis methods and the output is used to operate recording or indicating instrument.Direct instrument measurements   Direct methods enable to determine a numerical value of the surface finish of any surface.  In this is operated by carrier-modulating principle and the other is operated by voltage-generating principle. These instruments are classified into two types according to the operating principle. . and in the both types the output is amplified.  Direct Instruments are operated by electrical principles.

 Taylor-Hobson Talysurf. . Some of the direct measurement instruments are 1. 3. 2. Stylus probe instruments. 4. Tomlinson surface meter. Profilometer.

. the irregularities in the surface texture is measured and it is used to assess the surface finish of the work piece.Stylus probe type instrument  Principle:  When the stylus be moved over the surface which is to be measured.

 Then it is analyzed by automatic device. stylus.  The skid is slowly moved over the surface by hand or by motor drive. The skid follows the irregularities of the surface and the stylus moves along with skid. amplified and recorded to produce a trace. .  When the stylus moves vertically up and down and the stylus movements are magnified. Working  The stylus type instruments consist of skid. amplifying device and recording device.

. Skilled operators are needed to operate. 3. Advantage  Any desired roughness parameter can be recorded. Disadvantages: 1. Fragile material cannot be measured. 2. High Initial cost.

 The lapped cylinder is supported one side by probe and other side by rollers.  The stylus is also attached to the body of the instrument by a leaf spring and its height is adjustable to enable the diamond to be positioned and the light spring steel arm is attached to the lapped cylinder. Construction  In this the diamond stylus on the surface finish recorder is held by spring pressure against the surface of a lapped cylinder.Tomlinson Surface meter   This instrument uses mechanical-cum-optical means for magnification. .

.  The spring arm has a diamond scriber at the end and smoked glass is rest on the arm.

 This rolling of lapped cylinder causes the movement of the arm. Working:  When measuring surface finish the body of the instrument is moved across the surface by a screw rotation.  The vertical movement of the probe caused by the surface irregularities makes the horizontal lapped cylinder to roll. So this movement is induces the diamond scriber on smoked glass. .

  Finally the movement of scriber together with horizontal movement produces a trace on the smoked glass plate and this trace is magnified by an optical projector. .

.Talyor-HobsonTalysurf   It is working an carrier modulating principle and it is an accurate method comparing with the other methods.  The main parts of this instrument is diamond stylus (0.002mm radius) and skid Principle  The irregularities of the surface are traced by the stylus and the movement of the stylus is converted into changes in electric current.

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 Working:  On two legs of the E-shaped stamping there are coils is their for carrying an a. current and these coils form an oscillator.c.  This modulation is again demodulated for the vertical displacement of the stylus. .  As the armature is pivoted about the central leg the movement of the stylus causes the air gap to vary and thus the amplitude is modulated.

  So this demodulated output is move the pen recorder to produce a numerical record and to make a direct numerical assessment. .