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Basic Information Technology

Lecturer: Ms. Farwah Ahmad

Kicking off…..

Class Rules



On Time
Disciplined
Participative
Decide what will happen if any of the above rule is violated?

Grading Policy


Mid-Term
Final Exam
Teacher Evaluation


Class participation/Attendence
Assignment/Quiz
Project

25%
50%
25%
5%
10%
10%

Chapter 2:
COMPUTER INFORMATION
SYSTEM

System Components .

System Components .

PEOPLE .

Computer Professionals  Computer Users • Driving force behind the development of computer system Applies the information produced by computer Responsible for data entry.People  Two categories .Computer Users . Computer operations and utilizing the resulting input • •  • • Further subdivided Informed User : How the components of a computer system work together to perform a task User-developers : Who design and test their own computer application .

. written by a team of analyst and users into the computer program. Programmers: Translate program specification and requirements. Program Revisions .People  Computer Professionals • People who work directly with development and operation of computer technology Help users design computer assisted solutions Management of data End-user training • • •   • • •  Career Opportunities for computer professionals System development Computer salespeople : Help new user which software and hardware best meet their need System analyst : Work with users in developing computer systems that satisfy specific requirements.…….

People  • • • •  • Operations Help desks staff : Professionals who answer questions user may have and to respond to emergencies Network engineers: Responsible for keeping hardware and software working for connected users Computer Operators: Ensure that all equipment is functioning properly and responsible for daily maintenance of devices Data librarian: Catalog and store important tapes and disks.…….To look at opportunities for improvement . Management Information system manager : To ensure that the computer resources of an organization are used effectively.To detect inefficiencies and illegal uses of the system. . ..

DATA .

File:Groups similar records that can be summarized . ideas and events  Organizing data .Database:  Objects . things.Self contained data items that have meaning by themselves are sometimes referred to as an object .DATA  Raw facts about people.Records: Related group of fields .Field .

Example of Database .

incorrect or poor-quality input will produce faulty output.Garbage in Garbage out  GIGO: used to express the idea that in computing and other fields.600 . Examples:    Your mother flight reservation back from Mexico is not listed on the airline’s computer reservation but she has a ticket When she applies for a loan your sister is told that she has a bad credit rating (but she has never applied for credit before) This month telephone bill is $36.

Garbage in Garbage out .

PROCEDURES .

data and hardware Third component of computer system Help new user understand how to work with computer system? Further subdivided into   Operating Procedures Emergency Procedures .Procedures    Systematic courses of action that help people use software.

Procedures           Turning on all the hardware components of a computer system Formatting a new disk Running an application program Inputting text and scanning related photographs Verifying the correctness and completeness of the data entered Saving the input on a formatted disk Preparing the printer for output Printing a document Copying data files onto a second disk as backup Turning off the hardware .

copying.Procedures used to turn on the machine .Instructions on locating. and erasing files Further subdivided  Communication Procedures: Link one computer to others and facilitate sending data among them  Data entry procedures: Describe the preparation and input of data  Error recovery procedures: Respond to and eliminate processing errors  Preventive maintenance procedures: Help keep the computer and other hardware in good operating conditions  Backup Procedures: Making a copy of data and information onto a disk or tape .Operating Procedures  Operating Procedures .

Emergency Procedures  Emergency Procedures -Enable people to recover important data & start the system working again Further subdivided into  • Troubleshooting Procedures: To locate the cause of the crash Diagnostic software: To track down malfunctioning components in a computer .

HARDWARE .

Hardware  Input Hardware – To enter data into the computer  Keyboard Mouse Scanner  Processing Hardware   . Mainframe computer .Computer itself is a processing hardware   Personal computer Minicomputer.

Hardware .

Processing Hardware .

Hard disk  • Tape drive These drives can save (write) data on a tape or disk and copy (read) it back into the computer’s memory upon command .Floppy disk .Hardware  Output Hardware Processed information is provided to the user through output hardware •   Monitor: Displays information on a screen for temporary use Printer: Delivers copies of output on paper for distribution or long term use  Storage Hardware  Disk .

SOFTWARE .

Software     Instruct hardware how to conduct processing Determines the order in which operation are performed Business applications Video games Personal productivity software      Allow the user to apply the computer to common problems and tasks and individual may have They are sold in a packages that contain the program itself A copyright agreement A user manual with operating instructions .

application programs are the most familiar forms of software and come in a very wide variety of types (such as accounting programs. Called 'Apps' for short.Application software • • Application software is a program or group of programs designed for end users. other than system maintenance functions (which are performed by utility programs). graphics and illustration programs. Complete. database programs. self-contained computer program that performs a specific useful task. word processing programs). Also called application software .

drawings. Graphic packages: Generate pictures.Assist users in organizing data to answer questions and solve problems . charts and diagrams onscreen or on paper.Application Software     Word processing program: Expedite report and letter writing Electronic spreadsheets: Create documents containing numbers organized into rows and columns for processing and analysis. Databases: Software that sets up and maintains related data files ..

. If we think of the computer system as a layered model. the system software is the interface between the hardware and user applications.System software  System software is a type of computer program that is designed to run a computer's hardware and application programs.

Collection of programs that oversees all the computer operations When a program is first turned on.Software     • System software Controls internal computer activities Operating system: Collection of system programs that aid in the operation of a compute. one of the system programs is booted into the computer’s memory. .

. it is not possible to use computer. the instructions stared in ROM are automatically executed. Before discussing the types of operating systems. An operating system is software. Without an operating system. which makes the computer ready to use by a process called booting.Operating Systems   An Operating System is the most essential system software that manages the operation of a computer. This process of loading of operating system from disk to RAM is called booting. These instructions help the computer to load the operating system from external storage device (disk) to internal storage (RAM). When we switch on the computer. The computer is useless unless it is provided essential software that makes it ready to use. let us first see what booting exactly means.

System software controls Application software .

Preventive maintenance. emergency and troubleshooting? QUIZ .Q:1 Why should people avoid giving up decision-making responsibilities to computer? Q:2 How do the skills of a user-developer differ from those of an informed user? Q:3 How are each of these procedures used: Operating. backup. Data entry.