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Factors influencing organizational change

An integrative investigation of change
content, context, process and individual
Jack Walker, Achilles A. Armenakis and Jeremy B. Bernerth
Department of Management, Auburn University, Auburn,
Alabama, USA

refer to the preexisting forces in an organizations external and internal enviroment. • Contextual issues The final change factor. contextual issues. • Individual differences Individual possess various dispositional and personality characteristics that have potential to influence organizational attitudes and behaviors. .Factors influencing organizational change success • Content issues Content issues refer to the change being implemented and are specific to each organization. process issues refer to the actions taken by change agents during the introduction and implementation of the proposed change. • Process issues Unlike content issues which involve the specifics of the change itself.

Second. Third. First. all study participant were involved in the same effort. Tolerance of Ambiguity (TOA) was the only characteristic used in this study.Integration of change factors • The model It is important to note several aspects of this model. . cynicism was used as a surrogate of change context.

The Model .

the writer suggest change beliefs will be positively related to an employee level of commitment (path 5).Hypotheses embedded within the model TOA is hypothesized to be positively related to change beliefs (path 1) and negatively associated with cynicism (path 2). And finally. The writer also suggest that employee cynicism will be negatively related with change beliefs (path 3). Employee cynicism also influences cynicism also influences commitment to change (path 4). .

91 Context Context was measured by assesing levels of cynicism among the change target. Coefficient  for this measure was 0. self-effiacy and personal valence.89 . approtiateness.81 Individual differences Coefficient  for this measure was 0.84 Affective responses to change Affective responses to change efforts were assesed by levels of affective commitment amnong the change target. Coefficient  for this measure was 0. principal support.Methodology • • • • • Content Organizational efforts to communicate the change were two fold:  through union newsletter Through direct communication with manufacturing line Process Five items were developed to measure each of the five message components: disrepancy. Coefficient  for the overall measure was 0.

Methodology • • Participants and procedure Participants were solicited from two production lines of the newly formed organization. Specifically. we used the: – X2 goodness of fit statistic. – Tucker-Lewis index (TLI). and – root mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA). In each analysis. several fit indices were used to evaluate the adequacy of the models. Participants were provided with a paper and pencil survey and asked to return the survey within 48 hours. . – incremental fit index (IFI). Analyses The hypothesized model (Figure 1) was tested using AMOS. – Bentler comparative fit index (CFI).A total of 117 out of the 125 (94 percent) distributed questionnaires were completed and used for analyses. a structural equation modeling software package. The numbers above each path correspond to our hypotheses.

Results Table I reports the means. intercorrelations. . standard deviations. and Cronbach a for all variables included in our model.

Path 3 hypothesized a negative relationship between cynicism and change beliefs. Thus. providing support for H2. This path was found to be significant. Lastly. path 5 hypothesized change beliefs for change would be positively related to commitment.Result • • • • • In our hypothesized model (Figure 1). Path 4 predicted that cynicism would be negatively related to commitment. H1 was not supported. H4 received no support. alternative model A (Figure 2) revealed a significant relationship between TOA and cynicism (path 2). . This path was found to be significant. In the hypothesized model (Figure 1). the path between TOA and change beliefs (path 1) was found to be non-significant. this path was nonsignificant. However.Thus.

our findings suggest that process has the potential to counteract the negative consequences of employee cynicism. Individuals high in cynicism may be more likely to commit to organizational change if they have been properly prepared for the change. individuals low in cynicism will likely resist committing to change if management has not properly prepared them for change. . Conversely.Result Considering the above discussion.