MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

CHARACTERISTICS
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Objective Oriented Economic Catalyst Distinctive Process Integrative Force Coordination of Authority Multi-disciplinary subject Universal Relevance

Role of Management

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To guide organisations toward goal accomlishment Effective utilisation of resources Moving organisation towards its goals by assigning activities to members

Management Process
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Planning Organising Influencing Controlling

Management Process
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Planning: deciding what needs to happen in the future and generating plans for action Organizing: making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. Leading/Motivating: exhibiting skills in these areas for getting others to play an effective part in achieving plans.

Management Process

Controlling: monitoring — checking progress against plans, which may need modification based on feedback.

Planning
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Choosing tasks that must be performed to attain organisational goals. Outlining how the tasks must be performed. Indicating when they should be performed. Planning activity focuses on attaining goals. Through their plans, managers outline exactly what organisations must do to be successful.

Planning is concerned with organisational success in the near future (short term) as well as in the more distant future (long term).

Organizing

Assigning the tasks developed under the planning function to various individuals or groups within the organisation. Creating a mechanism to put plans into action. People within the organisation are given work assignments that contribute to the company’s goals.

Tasks are organised so that the output of individuals contributes to the success of departments, which, in turn, contributes to the success of divisions. Which ultimately contributes to the success of the organisation.

Directing

The function – also commonly referred to as motivating, leading, influencing, or actuating – is concerned primarily with people within organisations. Directing can be defined as guiding the activities of organisation members in appropriate directions.

Ultimate purpose of influencing is to increase productivity. Human-oriented work situations usually generate higher levels of production over the long term than do task-oriented work situations, because people find the latter type distasteful.

Controlling

Controlling is the management function for which managers:
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Gather information that measures recent performance within the organisation. Compare present performance to preestablished performance standards. From this comparison, determine if the organisation should be modified to meet pre-established standards.

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Controlling is an ongoing process. Managers continually gather information, make their comparisons, and then try to find new ways of improving production through organisational modification.

Levels of Management
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Top-Level Middle level First Level Supervisory Individual contributors

Management Skill

It is the ability to carry out the process of reaching organisational goals by working with and through people and other organisational resources.

Classical View

Robert.L. Katz states that three types of skills are important for successful managerial performance:
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Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual Skills

Classical View

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Technical Skills: Ability to apply specialised knowledge and expertise to work-related techniques and procedures. Human Skills: Skills that build cooperation within the team being led. Conceptual Skills: Ability to see the organisation as a whole.

Classical View

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Supervisory/operational Management: Technical Skills Middle management: Human Skills Top Management: Conceptual Skills

Contemporary View

Managers to have following Competencies:
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Clarifying roles Monitoring operations Short Term planning Consulting Supporting Recognising

Contemporary View
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Developing Empowering Envisioning Change Taking risks for change Encouraging Innovative thinking External Monitoring

Managerial Effectiveness

It refers to management’s use of organisational resources in meeting organisational goals

Managerial Efficiency

It is the proportion of total organisational resources that contribute to productivity during the manufacturing process.

RESOURCE USE

Efficient (most resources contribute to production) Inefficient (few resources contribute to production)

Combination of Effectiveness & Efficiency
Not reaching Goals and not Wasting resources Reaching goals and not Wasting resources

Not reaching Goals and not Wasting resources Ineffective (little progress toward organizational goals)

Reaching goals and wasting resources Effective (substantial progress toward organizational goals)

GOAL ACCOMPLISHMENT

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