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ST2110 DESIGN OF TALL

BUILDINGS

WIND TUNNEL EXPERIMENT


Done to determine wind loading
i.e., quasi steady for determining the
static pressure distribution or force on a
building
Pressure developed are used in
calculating full scale loading
If a buildings slenderness or flexibility is
higher then its response to excitation by
energy of gusts may influence wind
loading.

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Complex models are used only when
additional mode of oscillations such as torsion
occurs.
Complex models consists of lumped mass,
springs and flexible rods designed to simulate
stiffness and mass properties of prototype.
Wind pressure measurements are made by
flush surface pressure on face of models,
pressure transducers are used to obtain RMS
and peak pressures.

Demo

Demo 2

ANALYTICAL METHOD
To bridge gap between those buildings
that require only simple approach to
wind loading.
More detailed analysis methods have
been developed to calculate dynamic
loads.

Gust factor method

EARTHQUAKE LOADING
EQ resistant design concentrates
particularly on the translational
inertia forces
Its effects on the structure are more
significant than vertical or rotational
shaking components.

EARTHQUAKE LOADING
The general philosophy of EQ resistant
design is based on principles..
1.Resist minor EQ without damage
2.Resist moderate EQ without structural
damage but accepting probability of non
structural damage
3.Resist average EQ with probability of
structural as well as non structural
damage but without collapse

EARTHQUAKE LOADING
Magnitude of EQ loading is a result of
dynamic response of a building to
shaking of ground.
Estimation of seismic loading is done
by two approaches
1. Equivalent lateral force approach
2. Modal Analysis procedure

EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE


PROCEDURE

Design base shear equation provides the level of seismic


design loading for a given structural system, assuming
that it will undergo inelastic deformation during a major
earthquake.
Z = zone coefficient
C = Response of particular structure to earthquake
acceleration spectrum
I = importance factor
T = fundamental time period
S = site coefficient (depends on the soil site conditions)
W = total dead load on the structure
Rw = structural system factor( ductility and type of material)

DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL
BASE SHEAR
Total base shear is necessary in order to proceed with
the analysis, in order to allocate base shear as
effective horizontal loads at the various floor levels.
Effective loading at a floor level is equal to product of
mass assigned to that floor and horizontal
acceleration at that level
Maximum acceleration at any level of structure in
fundamental mode is proportional to its horizontal
displacement in that mode
Fundamental mode for a regular structure consisting
of shear walls and frames is linear from the base.

MODAL ANALYSIS
Usually equivalent static load analysis is suitable for
majority of high-rise structures
If lateral load resisting elements or the vertical
distribution of mass are irregular over the height of
building, analysis that takes greater consideration of
the dynamic characteristics must be done.
In the above said cases Modal analysis technique
would be appropriate
In modal analysis a lumped mass model with
horizontal degrees of freedom is analysed to
determine the modal shapes and frequencies of
vibration.

MODAL ANALYSIS
Buildings in which the mass of the floor levels is
highly eccentric from particular centre of
resistance will be subjected to torque, causing
significant torsional vibrations
Modal analysis is applicable only to linear elastic
systems
For inelastic systems accurate values of response
are obtained through modified design response
spectra

COMBINATIONS OF LOADING
It varies according to the codes used.
Combination of dead and live loading with
reductions in the live loading to allow for the
improbability of loaded tributary areas and pattern
loading for worst effects.
Approaches to combination of loading are by two
north American codes UBC and National Building
code of Canada.

LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
Light weight aggregates are used to made light
weight concrete
Light weight aggregates have different densities so
concrete of different densities are obtained.
Using expanded Perlite or vermiculite concrete of
density as low as 300 kg/m3 can be produced
Using Expanded slag, sintered fly ash and bloated
clay concrete of density 1900 kg/m3 can be produced
The strength of light weight concrete varies from 0.3
N/mm2 to 40 N/mm2
Strength depends on density of aggregates

LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
Lightweight aggregates are normally having high
absorbing capacity.
Its one of the difficulty in applying normal mix design
procedure
To make it water proof we can coat the aggregates with
bitumen but it will affect the bonding property in
concrete
So coating by silicon compounds are used to satisfy
the above situation
Because of its porous nature it is prone to corrosion
so the steel rods used can be coated with corrosion
protection coating such as epoxy.

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE


About thirty years ago the high strength is one having
strength above 40 MPa
Recently threshold increases to 50 to 60 MPa
Concrete of 90 to 120 MPa are rarely used
Vidya sagar setu bridge is longest cable stayed bridge
built using HSC.
Concrete of strength 45 to 60 MPa were used in high
rise buildings in Bombay, Delhi etc
Special methods of making HSC are
1. Seeding 2. Re-vibration 3. High speed slurry mixing
4. Use of admixtures 5. Crack inhibition 6. Sulphur
impregnation

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE


Seeding adding small % of finely ground Portland
cement
Re-vibration concrete has plastic shrinkage so revibration is done to reduce bleeding, water
accumulation and increases strength of concrete
High speed slurry mixing advance preparation of
cement water mixture then blended with
aggregate to produce concrete
Crack inhibition replacement of 2 to 3% of fine
aggregate by polythene or polystyrene lenticules to
arrest crack and gain strength