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Greek word: kinema- “movement” and graphein- “to

 is the making of lighting and camera choices when

recording photographic images for cinema.

According to ASC they defines cinematography as:
 a creative and interpretive process that culminates in

the authorship of an original work of art rather than
the simple recording of a physical event.
 is not a subcategory of photography

Comes from the word “kinema” means to scope
 is derived from the Greek word KINEMAMATOS

meaning “the science of pure motion”
 it may refer to film-motion pictures or movies
 film-making – is the process of making a film


intelligent. .George Melies and George Albert Smith  were very talented. creative and skillful individual.

 began to made up of more than one shot o 1906.required more and more film o 1910 “backlighting” appeared .

1912.the expressive use of film was underway 1914. Griffith’s Broken Blossoms)-’soft focus’ .W.the light from the back now came from theatrical-type are spotlight 1919-(D.

is a form of illumination used in liquid crystal displays (LCDs).spread to Europe “soft focus  3 point lighting:  key light.usually a spotlight  fill light. .  backlight.(often simply fill) may be used to reduce the contrast of a.1920’s.




or the scanning of a subject horizontally on video or a display device.refers to the horizontal movement or rotation of a still or video camera.Panning . .

Tilting the camera results in a motion similar to someone nodding their head "yes" or to an aircraft performing a pitch rotatio n.TILTING ) is a cinematographic technique in which the camera is stationary and rotates in a vertical plane (or tilting plane). A rotation in a horizontal plane is known as panning. .

. The camera is mounted on the dolly and records the shot as it moves.Tracking dolly is a cart which travels along tracks. Dolly shots have a number of applications and can provide very dramatic footage.

1960’s. ”correct response of color film to real world colors.all the features of cinematography described above were refined into a norm of technique.many film-makers rejected the natural. 1950’s.development color in lighting 1980’s. .1930’ and white film was increasingly replaced by color.


) TIME  is the most important element of the cinema  it has three aspects:  physical  psychological  dramatic .1.

Physical time  is the time taken by an action as it is being filmed and as it is being projected on the screen.  it can be distorted through the following:  slow motion  accelerated motion  reverse motion  Stopped motion .

it happens when the camera takes picture faster than the projector can show them on the screen. .Slow Motion.


.occurs when the camera takes pictures slower than the projector can run them on the screen.Accelerated Motion.

Reverse Motionconveys an undoing of time and used in magic or comic effects. .

is not often used .Stopped Motion.

• Psychological time  is our emotional impression of the duration of the action that we experience as we watch a film. • Dramatic time  refers to the time taken up by the events which are depicted in the film .

• Can express subjectively .2.refers to the size of objects on the screen and their relation to the surrounding area. SPACE  is very different from our experience of space in the cinema.  there are three rudiments of the art of the film|: Scale. Shooting angle • the camera may record scenes from different angles.

camera may be directed  Vertically downwards.a shot taken at an angle above the object  Horizontally.• Several angles:  Vertically upwards.third has three different sizes of shots may be taken: . which creates an impression of closeness or equality among the characters of the scene .

Medium-shot . the camera is positioned very far from the objects e b. is taken from an average distance and is the view of medium extent on a medium scale.a. Close-up . c. the camera which is situated so close to the objects . Long-shot .

LONG-SHOT IMAGE Exposure Shot of Cars Going Around a Roundabout in Rome. Italy .

MEDIUM SHOT contractor medium shot .


Lighting.used to give the illusion of depth in the film 3. CUTTING (MONTAGE OR EDITING)  a scene in the past replaces one in the present  Made possible by shot changes  Helps the director eliminate unwanted scene .

) Size of Shot .CINEMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES 1) Digital Video Lighting . Another technique that has a profound effect on the way a film is perceived . the standard lighting technique 3. One of the most paramount aspects of cinematography 2) Three Point Lighting Technique .

architects and even army personnel . engineers. 5.4.) Matte  an old technique which combines two separate shots or images into one shot.) Forced Perspective  is an optical illusion used by the cinematographers.

color and etc. mid ground and foreground will be rendered .the background. 3) Lens. 4) Depth of field and focus.first decision made in preparing a typical 20th cent.. feel. film production.widely used to enhance mood or dramatic effects. or effect by focus.can be attached to the camera to give a certain look.ASPECTS OF CINEMATOGRAPHY 1) Film stock. 2) Filters.

is one of the most expressive tools available to a filmmaker. 6. .)Camera movement. It alters the relationship between the subject and the camera necessary to create an image exposure on a film or on digital target. 7.) Aspect ratio and framing.the ratio of its width to its height.) Lighting.5.

) Frame rate selection- Motion picture images are presented to an audience at a constant speed.8. .

is in sharp focus. .Depth of field and focus A deep focus shot from Citizen Kane (1941): everything. including the hat in the foreground and the boy (young Charles Foster Kane) in the distance.


FILM  Is the process of making a film  Often referred as film production  3 stages of film production: .