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CINEMATOGRAPHY

Greek word: kinema- “movement” and graphein- “to

record”
 is the making of lighting and camera choices when

recording photographic images for cinema.

According to ASC they defines cinematography as:
 a creative and interpretive process that culminates in

the authorship of an original work of art rather than
the simple recording of a physical event.
 is not a subcategory of photography

Cinema
Comes from the word “kinema” means to scope
 is derived from the Greek word KINEMAMATOS

meaning “the science of pure motion”
 it may refer to film-motion pictures or movies
 film-making – is the process of making a film

BRIEF HISTORY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY .

intelligent. .George Melies and George Albert Smith  were very talented. creative and skillful individual.

1903.film began to made up of more than one shot o 1906.required more and more film o 1910 “backlighting” appeared .

1912.the expressive use of film was underway 1914. Griffith’s Broken Blossoms)-’soft focus’ .W.the light from the back now came from theatrical-type are spotlight 1919-(D.

is a form of illumination used in liquid crystal displays (LCDs).spread to Europe “soft focus  3 point lighting:  key light.usually a spotlight  fill light. .  backlight.(often simply fill) may be used to reduce the contrast of a.1920’s.

BACK LIGHTING .

KEY LIGHTING .

FILL LIGHTING .

or the scanning of a subject horizontally on video or a display device.refers to the horizontal movement or rotation of a still or video camera.Panning . .

Tilting the camera results in a motion similar to someone nodding their head "yes" or to an aircraft performing a pitch rotatio n.TILTING ) is a cinematographic technique in which the camera is stationary and rotates in a vertical plane (or tilting plane). A rotation in a horizontal plane is known as panning. .

. The camera is mounted on the dolly and records the shot as it moves.Tracking dolly is a cart which travels along tracks. Dolly shots have a number of applications and can provide very dramatic footage.

1960’s. ”correct response of color film to real world colors.all the features of cinematography described above were refined into a norm of technique.many film-makers rejected the natural. 1950’s.development color in lighting 1980’s. .1930’s.black and white film was increasingly replaced by color.

ELEMENTS OF CINEMATOGRAPHY .

) TIME  is the most important element of the cinema  it has three aspects:  physical  psychological  dramatic .1.

Physical time  is the time taken by an action as it is being filmed and as it is being projected on the screen.  it can be distorted through the following:  slow motion  accelerated motion  reverse motion  Stopped motion .

it happens when the camera takes picture faster than the projector can show them on the screen. .Slow Motion.

SLOW MOTION CAMERAS .

.occurs when the camera takes pictures slower than the projector can run them on the screen.Accelerated Motion.

Reverse Motionconveys an undoing of time and used in magic or comic effects. .

is not often used .Stopped Motion.

• Psychological time  is our emotional impression of the duration of the action that we experience as we watch a film. • Dramatic time  refers to the time taken up by the events which are depicted in the film .

• Can express subjectively .2.refers to the size of objects on the screen and their relation to the surrounding area. SPACE  is very different from our experience of space in the cinema.  there are three rudiments of the art of the film|: Scale. Shooting angle • the camera may record scenes from different angles.

camera may be directed  Vertically downwards.a shot taken at an angle above the object  Horizontally.• Several angles:  Vertically upwards.third direction.it has three different sizes of shots may be taken: . which creates an impression of closeness or equality among the characters of the scene .

Medium-shot . the camera is positioned very far from the objects e b. is taken from an average distance and is the view of medium extent on a medium scale.a. Close-up . c. the camera which is situated so close to the objects . Long-shot .

LONG-SHOT IMAGE Exposure Shot of Cars Going Around a Roundabout in Rome. Italy .

MEDIUM SHOT contractor medium shot .

CLOSE-UP IMAGE .

Lighting.used to give the illusion of depth in the film 3. CUTTING (MONTAGE OR EDITING)  a scene in the past replaces one in the present  Made possible by shot changes  Helps the director eliminate unwanted scene .

) Size of Shot .CINEMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES 1) Digital Video Lighting . Another technique that has a profound effect on the way a film is perceived . the standard lighting technique 3. One of the most paramount aspects of cinematography 2) Three Point Lighting Technique .

architects and even army personnel . engineers. 5.4.) Matte  an old technique which combines two separate shots or images into one shot.) Forced Perspective  is an optical illusion used by the cinematographers.

color and etc. mid ground and foreground will be rendered .the background. 3) Lens. 4) Depth of field and focus.first decision made in preparing a typical 20th cent.. feel. film production.widely used to enhance mood or dramatic effects. or effect by focus.can be attached to the camera to give a certain look.ASPECTS OF CINEMATOGRAPHY 1) Film stock. 2) Filters.

is one of the most expressive tools available to a filmmaker. 6. .)Camera movement. It alters the relationship between the subject and the camera frame.is necessary to create an image exposure on a film or on digital target. 7.) Aspect ratio and framing.the ratio of its width to its height.) Lighting.5.

) Frame rate selection- Motion picture images are presented to an audience at a constant speed.8. .

is in sharp focus. .Depth of field and focus A deep focus shot from Citizen Kane (1941): everything. including the hat in the foreground and the boy (young Charles Foster Kane) in the distance.

CAMERA MOVEMENT .

FILM  Is the process of making a film  Often referred as film production  3 stages of film production: .