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CINEMATOGRAPHY

Greek word: kinema- movement and graphein- to

record
is the making of lighting and camera choices when

recording photographic images for cinema.

According to ASC they defines cinematography as:


a creative and interpretive process that culminates in

the authorship of an original work of art rather than


the simple recording of a physical event.
is not a subcategory of photography

Cinema
Comes from the word kinema means to scope
is derived from the Greek word KINEMAMATOS

meaning the science of pure motion


it may refer to film-motion pictures or movies
film-making is the process of making a film

BRIEF HISTORY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY

George Melies and

George Albert Smith


were very talented,
intelligent, creative and
skillful individual.

1903- film began to made up of more

than one shot


o 1906- required more and more film
o 1910 backlighting appeared

1912- the expressive use of film was

underway
1914- the light from the back now came
from theatrical-type are spotlight
1919-(D.W. Griffiths Broken
Blossoms)-soft focus

1920s- spread to Europe soft focus


3 point lighting:
key light- usually a spotlight
fill light- (often simply fill) may be used to reduce

the contrast of a.
backlight- is a form of illumination used in
liquid crystal displays (LCDs).

BACK LIGHTING

KEY LIGHTING

FILL LIGHTING

Panning

- refers to the
horizontal
movement or
rotation of a still or
video camera, or
the scanning of a
subject horizontally
on video or a
display device.

TILTING
)

is a cinematographic
technique in which the
camera is stationary and
rotates in a vertical plane
(or tilting plane). A
rotation in a horizontal
plane is known as
panning. Tilting the
camera results in a
motion similar to
someone nodding their
head "yes" or to an
aircraft performing a
pitch rotatio n.

Tracking
dolly is a cart which
travels along tracks. The
camera is mounted on the
dolly and records the shot
as it moves. Dolly shots
have a number of
applications and can
provide very dramatic
footage.

1930s- all the features of cinematography described

above were refined into a norm of technique.


1950s- black and white film was increasingly
replaced by color.
1960s- development color in lighting
1980s- many film-makers rejected the natural,
correct response of color film to real world colors.

ELEMENTS OF
CINEMATOGRAPHY

1.) TIME
is the most important element of the cinema
it has three aspects:
physical
psychological
dramatic

Physical time
is the time taken by an action as it is being filmed

and as it is being projected on the screen.


it can be distorted through the following:
slow motion
accelerated motion
reverse motion
Stopped motion

Slow Motion- it
happens when
the camera
takes picture
faster than the
projector can
show them on
the screen.

SLOW MOTION CAMERAS

Accelerated
Motion- occurs
when the
camera takes
pictures
slower than
the projector
can run them
on the screen.

Reverse
Motionconveys an
undoing of
time and used
in magic or
comic effects.

Stopped
Motion- is
not often
used

Psychological time
is our emotional impression of the duration of the

action that we experience as we watch a film.


Dramatic time
refers to the time taken up by the events which are

depicted in the film

2. SPACE
is very different from our experience of space in the

cinema.
there are three rudiments of the art of the film|:
Scale- refers to the size of objects on the screen and
their relation to the surrounding area.
Shooting angle

the camera may record scenes from different angles.


Can express subjectively

Several angles:
Vertically upwards- camera may be directed
Vertically downwards- a shot taken at an angle

above the object


Horizontally- third direction, which creates an
impression of closeness or equality among the
characters of the scene
- it has three different sizes of shots may be taken:

a. Long-shot
. the camera is positioned very far from the objects e
b. Medium-shot
. is taken from an average distance and is the view

of medium extent on a medium scale.


c. Close-up
. the camera which is situated so close to the
objects

LONG-SHOT IMAGE

Exposure Shot of Cars Going Around a


Roundabout in Rome, Italy

MEDIUM SHOT

contractor medium shot

CLOSE-UP IMAGE

Lighting- used to give the illusion of depth in the film

3. CUTTING (MONTAGE OR EDITING)


a scene in the past replaces one in the present
Made possible by shot changes
Helps the director eliminate unwanted scene

CINEMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
1) Digital Video Lighting
. One of the most paramount aspects of

cinematography
2) Three Point Lighting Technique
. the standard lighting technique
3.) Size of Shot
. Another technique that has a profound effect on
the way a film is perceived

4.) Matte
an old technique which combines two separate
shots or images into one shot.
5.) Forced Perspective
is an optical illusion used by the cinematographers,
engineers, architects and even army personnel

ASPECTS OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
1) Film stock- first decision made in preparing a

typical 20th cent. film production.


2) Filters- widely used to enhance mood or dramatic
effects.
3) Lens- can be attached to the camera to give a
certain look, feel, or effect by focus, color and etc.,
4) Depth of field and focus- the background, mid
ground and foreground will be rendered

5.) Aspect ratio and framing- the ratio of its width to its
height.
6.) Lighting- is necessary to create an image exposure
on a film or on digital target.
7.)Camera movement- is one of the most expressive
tools available to a filmmaker. It alters the
relationship between the subject and the camera
frame.

8.) Frame rate selection-

Motion picture images are presented


to an audience at a constant speed.

Depth of field and focus

A deep focus shot from Citizen Kane (1941):


everything, including the hat in the foreground
and the boy (young Charles Foster Kane) in
the distance, is in sharp focus.

CAMERA MOVEMENT

FILM
Is the process of making a film
Often referred as film production
3 stages of film production: