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Hybrid Synergy

Drive - HSD

Sanjeev
Prasad. M
CAE- 09

Outline







The Environmental Issues
What is a Hybrid Vehicle?
History of the Hybrid
Hybrid efficiency
Myths about Hybrids
Hybrid Line-up
Hybrids in Fleets
The Future of Hybrid Technology

Mobility on a grand scale

Challenges, also on a grand scale

The Call to Action
“There is no future for the automotive industry
without the promotion of environmental
technology. Toyota is convinced that only
companies that succeed in this area will be
acceptable to society.”

Fujio Cho
Chairman, Toyota Motor Corporation

The Reality

“The new social priorities of the emerging era
will call for radically new approaches to
vehicles. Automakers have to address the
issue of co-existence with society, particularly
in relation to environmental preservation and
safety…”
Hiroshi Okuda
Chairman
Toyota Motor Corp., Japan, 2004

Environmental Commitment

Toyota is a world leader in producing advanced
technology vehicles that are environmentally
friendly.
Toyota vehicles are consistently among the
winners of EnerGuide’s most fuel efficient
vehicle in class awards.
Landfill Diversion & Recycling
 Reduced landfill waste by 85% at TCI
headquarters
 Recycle 95% of packaging and parts at
vehicle processing
and parts distribution centres
Environmental and Community Partnerships
Toyota Earth Day Scholarship
Toyota Evergreen Learning Grounds

A significant and growing percentage of
customers indicate a willingness to buy an
environmentally friendly vehicle

If, and only if, all other attributes
are EQUAL
or Better

Technology Design
Objectives

Significant fuel economy improvement.

Major reduction in exhaust emissions.

No new infrastructure needs (e.g. fuelling
stations).

No perceived difference by customer in vehicle
performance, handling, etc.

A competitive price to encourage adoption.

What is a Hybrid Vehicle?

What is a Hybrid System?
Fusion between an internal combustion
engine and electric motor—achieving different
functions through different power
combinations.

Automobile hybrid systems combine two
motive power sources, such as an internal
combustion engine and an electric motor.

Hybrid Synergy Drive
(HSD)

Components in HSD

Nickel-metal battery –
 50 kW, 273.6 Volts, 6.5 A·h capacity and

weighing 53.3 kg

IC Engine –
 1.8L, 4 Cylinder, Petrol Engine

Power Split and Control Device
 Planetary Gears
 AC/DC Inverter

Motor Generator I
 Motor Generator II

HSD Features






Idle Stop/Start
Regenerative Braking
Electric-only mode (Engine off)
Power boost
Self-charging battery (nickel-metal
hybrid)
Low Emissions
Low Fuel Consumption

Working

History of the Hybrid
1959 Henney Kilowatt was the first

transistor-based electric car

1990s automotive hybrid

technology became
successful when the Honda
Insight & Toyota Prius
became available

2000s saw development of plug-in

hybrid electric vehicles

Types of HSD

SERIES HYBRID
SYSTEM
The engine drives a
generator, and an
electric motor uses this
generated electricity to
drive the wheels. This
is called a series hybrid
system because the
power flows to the
wheels in series, i.e.,
the engine power and
the motor power are in
series.

PARALLEL
HYBRID SYSTEM
In a parallel
hybrid system, both
the engine and the
electric motor drive
the wheels, and the
drive power from
these two sources
can be utilized
according to the
prevailing
conditions.

SERIES-PARALLEL
HYBRID SYSTEM
This system
combines the series
hybrid system with
the parallel hybrid
system in order to
maximize the
benefits of both
systems.

Comparison

Characteristics of Hybrid Systems

ENERGY-LOSS REDUCTION
The system automatically stops the idling
of the
engine (idling stop), thus reducing the
energy that
would normally be wasted.
ENERGY RECOVERY AND REUSE
The energy that would normally be
wasted as
heat during deceleration and braking is
recovered as
electrical energy, which is then used to
power the

MOTOR ASSIST
The electric motor assists the engine during
acceleration.

HIGH-EFFICIENCY OPERATION CONTROL
The system maximizes the vehicle’s overall
efficiency by using the electric motor to run the
vehicle
under operating conditions in which the engine’s
efficiency is low and by generating electricity
under
operating conditions in which the engine’s
efficiency is high.

Engine and Motor
Operation

Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD)

Hybrid Synergy Drive Benefits
CLEAN: Reduced Exhaust Emissions
• Better air quality, minimizes adverse health effects

EFFICIENT: Reduced Fuel Consumption
• Lower operating cost, less CO2, less oil consumption

POWERFUL: More Fun to drive
• Quicker 0-100 km/h, immediate response, increased
torque

Combinations of the Above

Midsize Vehicle Fuel Consumption

8.6 L/100 km

Δ 580 L/yr
(Midsize 4 cyl Avg
Gas)

7.2 L/100 km

Δ 900 L/yr
(Midsize 4 cyl Avg
Gas)

5.7 L/100 km

Camry: Δ 300 L/yr
(Best 2005
Midsize Diesel)

4.1 L/100 km

Prius: Δ 620 L/yr
(Best 2005
Midsize Diesel)

Special Purpose Vehicle Fuel Consumption
RX 400h / Highlander Hybrid
Δ 820 L/yr V6 Avg (Gas)

14.8 L/100 km

11.9 L/100 km

7.8 L/100 km

7.8 L/100 km

Δ 1400 L/yr V8 Avg (Gas)

Well-to-Wheel Efficiency
Electric cars are NOT “zero emissions”
vehicles…
… because power generation creates emissions!
Mining coal

Transporting coal

Burning coal

Hybrids have the best Well-to-Wheel efficiency
today

Well-to-Wheel Efficiency

Hybrid Myths
 Hybrids pose a threat to first responders

The brightly-colored orange wires are heavily

protected and run underneath the floor in the
center of the vehicle. Rescue workers can cut
through any door or even a window-area
without any fear of coming in contact with
them.
 Hybrid vehicles need to be plugged-in
Never!  You never plug in the battery-pack.
The engine and regenerative braking provide
the necessary electricity.
 Hybrid Batteries need to be replaced
There have been no failures in service to date
and there is an 8 year / 160,000 km warrantee
on all hybrid components.

Contd…
 Hybrids are small and underpowered

As explained in the last couple of slides, this

is simply not the case. Hybrids out-perform
their conventional counterparts and often
come equipped with features not found on
other models.
 Electromagnetic Fields in hybrids are harmful
to human health
EMFs inside and outside of Toyota hybrids
are at the same low levels as conventional
gasoline vehicles. Therefore there are no
additional health risks to drivers, passengers
or by-standers.
 Hybrids are only about improving fuel
economy
In addition to improved fuel efficiency, hybrid
vehicles produce less smog forming
emissions, and offer improved performance.

Test Drive Comparison

Future Hybrid Applications
Toyota's Hybrid Technology
FCHV

Prius

ICE Hybrid Vehicle (Prius)

Toyota Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle
Fuel Cell

Engine

Power
Control Unit

Power
Control Unit
Secondary
Battery

Motor

Secondary
Battery

Motor

Hybrids can be integrated into all power train configurations,
regardless of the power source.

Conclusion

Reducing wasted energy

Reducing the size & power of the ICE
engine

Energy Efficient
Sustainable use of Non- renewable
energy resources
Eco-friendly


Reference





www.toyota.com/hybrids
www.toyotacanada.ca
www.hybridsynergydrive.co.za
www.howstuffworks.com
www.wikipedia.com
www.hybridworld.com

Question???

Thank You….