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Presentation of Wind Data

The wind energy that is available at a specific


site is usually presented on an annual basis.
There are several methods by which this data
can be presented.
Some of these methods carry the identical
information, presented from slightly different
viewpoints.

The goal is to evaluate the energy that can be


produced from the wind at a site.

Presentation of Wind Data


Wind data is usually summarized by annual averages
and totals.
This can be a bit misleading, since seasonal variations are
significant.
In some cases, monthly averages are also presented.

For non-grid-connected turbines, the annual peak winds may


not correspond to the peak electrical energy demands.

Typical plots that describe annual wind data are shown


on the next several slides.

Wind Speed Frequency Distribution Plots


One method of presenting wind speed data is to produce a
histogram of the number of hours each year that the wind speed
is within a certain band.
An example is shown below:

Normalized Wind Speed Frequency Diagrams


Rather than report the total time the wind is within a certain
band, sometimes the data is normalized by dividing by the total
number of hours.
The result is a probability vs. wind speed histogram.

The Weibull Distribution


Most wind data is modeled analytically by assuming it follows a Weibull
probability distribution function.
If P(V) is the probability of the wind being at speed V, then the Weibull
distribution is given by:

k V
P V
C C

k 1

V

C

The parameters k and C are called the scale and shape parameters, respectively,
and are chosen to fit the data.
C has dimensions of velocity, and k is dimensionless.

It is convenient to work with an equation rather than discrete data.

The Weibull Distribution Continued


k V
P V
V C

k 1

V

C

The Cumulative Wiebull Distribution


The cumulative distribution Pc(V) gives the probability
of the wind speed exceeding a certain value:
Pc V

P V%dV%
V

%k

% k 1 VC
V k V
%

e
dV

0 C C

Integrate by substitution:
V
u=
C

Pc V

V
du k
C

V

C

k 1

k V
1
dV



C
C C

e u du e

1 e

V
C

V
u C
0

k 1

dV

Plot of the Cumulative Weibull


Distribution

Pc V e

V

C

Development of a Weibull Estimate


from Wind Data

The Wind Rose


Wind speed frequency diagrams do not provide
information on the direction that the wind is blowing.
This is often done by a graph called a wind rose.
A wind rose is a polar plot giving the direction,
magnitude, and cube of the magnitude of the wind.
The data is usually averaged over a year.
In some cases, shorter time periods, such as months, may be
appropriate.

Description of the Wind Rose Plot


The polar plot is usually broken up into 12 30 sectors, and average
data is presented over each sector.
The first rose petal in a given direction is the fraction of the time,
normalized to 100%, that the wind is blowing from that direction.
The second petal is the fraction of time wind blows from a
particular direction multiplied by the average wind speed in that
direction, and normalized to 100%.
The second petal is the fraction of time wind blows from a
particular direction multiplied by the average cube of the wind
speed from that direction, and normalized to 100%.
The last two petals give information about how useful the wind is
from a given direction.
For example, if the wind usually blows from a particular direction, but not
very hard.

Wind Rose Examples


Direction
Speed
Energy

Use of the Wind Rose


The wind rose gives a graphical interpretation of much
of the data that is considered when evaluating a wind
power site.
The second plot (previous slide) shows the wind and
most of the wind energy comes from a prevailing
direction.
In this case, the site can be designed with this in mind, and
turbine technology with limited ability to rotate into the wind
can be considered.

Link to Wind Rose Applet:


www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/roseplot.htm

Wind Speed Power Curves for Specific Turbines


A wind turbine power curve shows the rated power as a
function of wind speed, as follows:

Wind Speed Power Curves


Wind speed power curves, when considered with
wind speed frequency diagrams, allow the
calculation of the total power that can be
produced at a site.
This allows the designer to choose turbine
technology appropriate for a given situation.
In addition, the wind rose illustrates the
requirements for swiveling, etc.