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site is usually presented on an annual basis.

There are several methods by which this data

can be presented.

Some of these methods carry the identical

information, presented from slightly different

viewpoints.

produced from the wind at a site.

Wind data is usually summarized by annual averages

and totals.

This can be a bit misleading, since seasonal variations are

significant.

In some cases, monthly averages are also presented.

not correspond to the peak electrical energy demands.

on the next several slides.

One method of presenting wind speed data is to produce a

histogram of the number of hours each year that the wind speed

is within a certain band.

An example is shown below:

Rather than report the total time the wind is within a certain

band, sometimes the data is normalized by dividing by the total

number of hours.

The result is a probability vs. wind speed histogram.

Most wind data is modeled analytically by assuming it follows a Weibull

probability distribution function.

If P(V) is the probability of the wind being at speed V, then the Weibull

distribution is given by:

k V

P V

C C

k 1

V

C

The parameters k and C are called the scale and shape parameters, respectively,

and are chosen to fit the data.

C has dimensions of velocity, and k is dimensionless.

k V

P V

V C

k 1

V

C

The cumulative distribution Pc(V) gives the probability

of the wind speed exceeding a certain value:

Pc V

P V%dV%

V

%k

% k 1 VC

V k V

%

e

dV

0 C C

Integrate by substitution:

V

u=

C

Pc V

V

du k

C

V

C

k 1

k V

1

dV

C

C C

e u du e

1 e

V

C

V

u C

0

k 1

dV

Distribution

Pc V e

V

C

from Wind Data

Wind speed frequency diagrams do not provide

information on the direction that the wind is blowing.

This is often done by a graph called a wind rose.

A wind rose is a polar plot giving the direction,

magnitude, and cube of the magnitude of the wind.

The data is usually averaged over a year.

In some cases, shorter time periods, such as months, may be

appropriate.

The polar plot is usually broken up into 12 30 sectors, and average

data is presented over each sector.

The first rose petal in a given direction is the fraction of the time,

normalized to 100%, that the wind is blowing from that direction.

The second petal is the fraction of time wind blows from a

particular direction multiplied by the average wind speed in that

direction, and normalized to 100%.

The second petal is the fraction of time wind blows from a

particular direction multiplied by the average cube of the wind

speed from that direction, and normalized to 100%.

The last two petals give information about how useful the wind is

from a given direction.

For example, if the wind usually blows from a particular direction, but not

very hard.

Direction

Speed

Energy

The wind rose gives a graphical interpretation of much

of the data that is considered when evaluating a wind

power site.

The second plot (previous slide) shows the wind and

most of the wind energy comes from a prevailing

direction.

In this case, the site can be designed with this in mind, and

turbine technology with limited ability to rotate into the wind

can be considered.

www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/roseplot.htm

A wind turbine power curve shows the rated power as a

function of wind speed, as follows:

Wind speed power curves, when considered with

wind speed frequency diagrams, allow the

calculation of the total power that can be

produced at a site.

This allows the designer to choose turbine

technology appropriate for a given situation.

In addition, the wind rose illustrates the

requirements for swiveling, etc.

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