You are on page 1of 17

3G Optimisation Workshop

Missing Neighbours
London, 28th of April
2003

Definition
A missing neighbour is a cell (MISSING_N) not declared as

neighbour of the best active cell (BEST) although it could be


added in the active set.

EcNoMISSING _ N EcNoBEST M arg inMISSING _ N

Practical rule: Margin_missing_n = 5 dB

DL Quality Issues

Low level: more DL power required to serve the UE = capacity


loss

Medium level: DL power is maximum and BLER is degraded

High level: Call is dropped

DL Quality: UE
Ec_cell_B - Ec_cell_A (dB)
0.00
-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

-5.00
Fast degradation of
CPICH EcNo of cell_A

-10.00
Serving Cell
Missing neighbour

-15.00

-20.00

-25.00

Call Drop area

25

DL Quality: UE
DL EcNo generated by a missing neighbour on 1 UE

]

R]

]

f]

]

25.0

1 UE - meas_2
Ti

1 UE - meas_3
1 UE - theory
4 UE - meas_1

T

Call Drop UE2


Call Drop UE1
T

-25.0
Ec_missing - Ec_active (dB)

UL Quality Issues
UL interference:
The missing neighbour cell receives an excessive UL Level from the UE, because the UE
power is not controlled by this cell
Excessive power means UL interference: the cell shrinks and all users on the missing
neighbour are affected

UL degradation is proportional to the number of UEs in the area

(e.g. transport)
Typical values (from EN tests)
1 UE: 1 to 2 dB noise rise
4 UEs: 4 dB noise rise

UL Quality: NodeB - from 1 UE


UL noise rise generated by 1 UE on a missing neighbour


H


1 UE - meas_2
1 UE - meas_1
1 UE - meas_3
1 UE - theory

e


R

RR

fR

-0.5
Ec_missing - Ec_active (dB)

25.0

UL Quality: NodeB - from 4


UEs
UL noise rise generated by 4 UEs on a missing neighbour


]


4 UE - meas_2


4 UE - meas_1

q

4 UEs - theory

)

0.0
-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

Ec_missing - Ec_active (dB)

10

15

20

25

Identify missing neighbours:


tools
UMTS scanner (Agilent, Anritsu)
Dedicated tool for this purpose
Will list all necessary neighbour declarations
One major argument why scanners are widely used in UMTS and not in GSM

Trace Mobile:
Useful but low efficiency to track the identity of the missing neighbour
No way to distinguish missing neighbour from pilot pollution problems

OMC Statistics:
May inform if a cell has major missing neighbours (to be investigated)
No possibility to obtain a missing neighbour identity

Scanner versus Trace Mobile

Number of scanned scrambling codes (SC):


- Scanner: 512 when using Top N, listed if using user_list, regardless of neighbours
declared
- Trace mobile: neighbour list only, up to 32 neighbours

Number of simultaneously reported SC: rarely more than 5.

All SC being transmitted on the same frequency, most SC are too interfered to be decoded

Method 1: scanner only


Step 1: Use Top N functionality to report all decoded scrambling

codes levels
Step2: post-process the data and list all necessary neighbour

declarations from the level differences


Step 3: comparison between scanner list and declared neighbour

list gives the list of missing neighbours

Method 2: trace mobile only


Step 1: Identify areas where the call is dropped due to a poor

CPICH EcNo
Step 2: Once back in idle mode the newly selected may be the

missing target neighbour


Or
Filter events when just after adding a cell in the active set, a very

strong cell is reported in the monitored set (method similar to


GSM)

Method 3: scanner + trace


mobile
Step 1: Merge two sources on a time basis

Step 2: For each timestamp, edit all neighbours reported within

Margin_missing_n (5 dB) for both sources


Step 3: Comparison gives the list of missing neighbours

Note that this method does not require any comparison with a list of
declared neighbours

High probability
Missing neighbours will occur with a high probability
>Inaccuracy of a planning tool leads to unexpected neighbours
>Example from EN:
Source Cell Target Cell
AVN0100C AVN0009B
AVN0100C AVN0011A
AVN0100C AVN0011B
AVN0100C AVN0067B
AVN0100C AVN0073B
AVN0100C AVN0073C
AVN0100C AVN0100A
AVN0100C AVN0100B
AVN0100C AVN0112B
AVN0100C AVN0151B
AVN0100C AVN5074F
AVN0100C AVN7023A
AVN0100C AVN7040A
AVN0100C AVN067A
AVN0100C AVN073A
AVN0100C AVN151C
Missing neighbours in Red

Recommendation
>Preferably declare too many than too few
neighbours

>Always

perform drive tests to identify


missing neighbours

Conclusion
Missing neighbours is a top priority for Quality in UMTS
>Huge quality problems (Call drops, cell shrinkage)
>High occurrence
>Very easy to solve. The only difficulty is to identify cells.
First priority in terms of Quality, before any pilot pollution or SHO
optimisation.

Soft HO: mechanism


EcNo
Cell 1
Aw
1

Dw
2
4

Cell 2

Time

1 : Cell 2 is added in the Active Set


2: Cell 1 leaves the Active Set
3: Cell 1 is added in the Active Set
4: Cell 2 leaves the Active Set

3G Optimisation Workshop

Missing Neighbours
London, 28th of April
2003