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BCD to EXCESS 3 Code Converter

By
Ushaswini chowdary.M

Introduction
The availability of large variety of codes for the same discrete
elements of information results in the use of different codes by
the different systems.
A conversion circuit must be inserted between the two systems
if each use different codes for the same information.
Thus a code converter is a circuit that makes the two systems
compatible
information.

even

though

both

uses

different

binary

Code converters, more specifically encoders and decoders,

have been used to protect private information.
Indeed, code converters have proven to be so effective that the
National Security Agency (NSA) has made a career out of
creating and breaking codes.
To convert from binary to excess 3 code the input lines must
supply the bit combination of elements as specified by the
code.

Binary Coded Decimal

The term BCD refers to representing the ten decimal digits in
binary forms; which simply means to count in binary.
In computing and electronic systems, binary coded decimal is a
class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each
decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits , usually
four or eight, although other sizes (such as six bits) have been
used historically. Special bit patterns are sometimes used for
a sign or for other indications (e.g., error or overflow).

BCD takes advantage of the fact that any one decimal numeral
can be represented by a four bit pattern. This is also called
"8421" encoding.
Decimal
Digit
0

BCD
8421
0000

0001

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1000

1001

Excess 3

In XS-3, numbers are represented as decimal digits, and each

digit is represented by four bits as the digit value plus 3 (the
"excess" amount).
The primary advantage of XS-3 coding over non-biased
coding is that a decimal number can be nines' complemented
as easily as a binary number can be ones' complemented . In
addition, when the sum of two XS-3 digits is greater than 9,
the carry bit of a four bit adder will be set high.

The Excess-3 BCD system is formed by adding 0011 to each

BCD value as in Table 2. For example, the decimal number 7,
which is coded as 0111 in BCD, is coded as 0111+0011=1010
in Excess-3 BCD.
Decimal Numerals
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Excess-3
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100

THE BCD TO EXCESS 3 CODE CONVERTER

BCD Excess-3 circuit will convert numbers from their binary
representation to their excess-3 representation. Hence our truth
table is as below:
B3

B2

B1

B0

E3

E2

E1

E0

K maps
Our task now is to use the truth table to find four switching
expressions: one for E3, one for E2, one for E1, and one for E0.
We have two choices: we can use Boolean algebraic
manipulations, or we can use Karnaugh maps.
We use k maps for simplicity. Here dont cares are available
because in the truth table in Table 3, no BCD valuations exist
for E3E2E1E0 = 1010,1011,1100,1101,1110,1111. As such, we
evaluate B3B2B1B0= xxxx (either 0 or 1).

E3=B3+B2(B1+B0)

E2=B2^(B1+B0)

E1=(B1^B0)

E0=B0

Block diagram

Applications
Excess-3 was used on some older computers

Cash registers