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Abraham Maslow: Holistic-Dynamic

Theory

BY:
BRITTANY A. LIM
ALYSSA I. MALONZO
ANN NICOLE R. MANAHAN

Alyssa I. Malonzo

Overview of Holistic-Dynamic Theory


Maslows theory had been called in various ways
Referred to his theory as holistic-dynamic theory because it assumes that the whole

person is constantly being motivated by one need or another, and that people have
the potential to grow toward psychological health (self-actualization)
o Self-actualization- highest level of development
was called third force in psychology
Accepted some tenets of behaviorism and psychoanalysis
Criticized both behaviorism and psychoanalysis
Believed that humans have higher nature than either psychoanalysis and

behaviorism would suggest

Alyssa I. Malonzo

Maslows View on Motivation


Maslows personality theory rests on several basic assumptions

regarding motivation
o

First: Maslow adopted a holistic approach to motivation

Second: Motivation is usually complex

Third: People are continually motivated by one need or another

Fourth: Everyone is motivated by the same basic need

Fifth: Needs can be arranged on a hierarchy

Alyssa I. Malonzo

STRUCTURE

Alyssa I. Malonzo

STRUCTURE

Alyssa I. Malonzo

STRUCTURE
Maslows hierarchy of needs states that all lower level needs must be satisfied or

relatively satisfied before higher level needs become motivators.


The five needs composing this hierarchy are conative needs
o Conative needs- motivational o striving character/nature
These conative needs, which are basic needs according to Maslow, can be arranged
on a hierarchy or staircase, with each ascending step representing a higher need but
one less basic to survival
Lower level needs have prepotency over higher level needs, they must be satisfied
first before higher level needs become activated

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
Physiological Needs:
o
o
o
o

Seen at the base of the pyramid


Most basic need of any person
Includes food, shelter, clothing, water, oxygen, etc.
Differ from other needs because:

They are the ONLY NEEDS that can be completely or overly satisfied

They happen again and again, because of its recurring nature

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
Safety Needs:
o
o
o

Goes above the physiological needs


Motivates a person when their physiological needs are met
Includes physical security, stability, dependency, protection and freedom from
threatening forces (war, terrorism, illness, fear, anxiety, etc.). The need for law
and order is also included.
Differ from physiological needs because they cannot be overly satiated, since
danger or disasters are inevitable
In societies not at war, most healthy adults satisfy their safety needs most of the
time, thus making these needs relatively unimportant

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
o

Children are more often motivated by safety needs because they live with threats
like darkness, animals, strangers, and punishments from parents
Adults can also have this feeling of being relatively unsafe because they retain
irrational fears from childhood that cause them to act as if they were afraid of
parental punishment causing them to suffer basic anxiety
basic anxiety- feeling anxious and tense when needs are not satisfied

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
Love and Belongingness Needs:
o
o

after satisfying physiological and safety needs, love and belongingness follow
it is a desire for friendship; a wish for a mate and children; the need to belong to a
family or group
Include some aspect about sex and human contact as well as the need to receive
and give love
3 categories:
need for love is satisfied: develops confidence and is not devastated when denied of love
need for love is not satisfied: incapable of giving love, devalue love and take its absence for
granted
received love in small amounts: develop strong motivation to seek love

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
o

Children needs love, and they satisfy this need in a straightforward and direct
manner
Adults need love and acceptance too, but they disguise it cleverly by showing
other people aloofness or adopting cynical, cold, and calloused manner in
interpersonal relations

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
Esteem Needs:

Includes self-respect, confidence, competence, and the knowledge that others


hold them in high esteem
o Maslow identified two levels of esteem needs:
Reputation perception of the prestige, recognition or fame a person has
achieved in the eyes of others
Self-Esteem- the persons own feelings of worth and confidence
- based on real competence, not on what others think or say
o
when this need is satisfied, it brings us to the threshold of self-actualization
o

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
Self-actualization Needs:
o
o

Highest form of need


Include self-fulfillment, the realization of all potentials a person has, and a desire
to be creative in the full sense of the world
Should be exhibited after satisfying all the lower level needs, as Maslow originally
assumed
However, self-actualization is not always achieved even though the other four
needs (physiological, safety, love and belongingness, and esteem) have been
satisfied
Accepting or not accepting B-values is the key to understanding why people achieve
self-actualization or not

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
o

Self-actualizing people maintain feelings of self-esteem, even when rejected or


dismissed by other people
They are independent of the other lower needs

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
In addition to the five conative needs, Maslow identified three more categories
o
o
o

Aesthetic Needs
Cognitive Needs
Neurotic Needs

Satisfaction of aesthetic and cognitive needs is consistent with psychological


health. These two, when not satisfied, leads to pathology. Neurotic needs leads to
pathology whether it is satisfied or not

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
Aesthetic Need
o

They are not universal like conative needs

Beauty and pleasant experiences are the motivating factors

People with strong aesthetic need desire orderly and beautiful surroundings

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
Cognitive Need
o

The desire to gain knowledge, to understand, to solve mysteries and to be curious

Knowledge is necessary to satisfy all the five conative needs, and blocking cognitive
needs becomes a threat to Maslows hierarchy of needs

Alyssa I. Malonzo

PROCESS
Neurotic Need
o

lead only to stagnation and pathology

Are nonproductive by definition

Perpetuate unhealthy style of life and have no value in striving for self-actualization

Usually reactive; acts as compensation to unsatisfied need

Alyssa I. Malonzo

General Discussion of Needs


An average human being satisfies 85% of his physiological needs, 70% for
safety, 50% for love and belongingness, 40% for esteem and 10% for selfactualization
Greater satisfaction of a lower need, greater emergence of the next level need
Needs emerge gradually
A person may be simultaneously motivated by different needs from two or
more levels

Alyssa I. Malonzo

Reversed Order of Needs


Although needs are usually satisfied in the hierarchical order, they are sometimes

reversed
For some, the drive for creativity (self-actualization) may precede over safety and

physiological needs
Reversals are usually more apparent than real, and some seemingly obvious

deviations in the order of needs are not variations at all

Alyssa I. Malonzo

Reversed Order of Needs


Understanding the unconscious motivation underlying the behavior would lead us

to recognizing that the needs are not reversed

Alyssa I. Malonzo

Unmotivated Behavior

Although all behaviors have a cause, some behaviors are not motivated

Not all determinants are motives

Some behaviors are caused by other factors, not by needs

Motivation is limited to the striving for satisfaction of a need

expressive behavior according to Maslow, is unmotivated

Alyssa I. Malonzo

Comparison between Expressive and Coping Behavior


Expressive Behavior

Coping Behavior

unmotivated

motivated

frequently unconscious

conscious; effortful

Has no goal; occurs naturally

Aims to satisfy a need

Usually unlearned, spontaneous, and


determined by force from within a person

Usually learned and determined by the


environment

Alyssa I. Malonzo

Deprivation of Needs
Lack of satisfaction of any basic need would lead to some kind of pathology

Alyssa I. Malonzo

Instinctoid Nature of Needs


Maslow hypothesizes that some human needs are innately determined even if they

can be modified by learning instinctoid needs


Difference between instinctoid needs and noninstictoid needs:
1.

Preventing a person from achieving his/her instinctoid need leads to pathology. Frustration of non-instinctoid need
does not.

2.

Instinctoid needs are persistent and its satisfaction leads to psychological health while non-instinctoid needs are

3.

usually temporary and its satisfaction is not prerequisite for health.


Instinctoid needs are species specific.
Instinctoid needs can be molded or altered by the environment

4.

Alyssa I. Malonzo

Growth and Development

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Self-Actualization
involves the individuals desire to develop his abilities to the fullest

potential
self-actualizing individuals fulfill their needs to grow, to develop, and to

increasingly become what they are capable of being


A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write if

he is ultimately to be at peace with himself. What a man can be, he must


be. This need we may call self-actualization.

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Criteria for Self-Actualization


A.

Free from psychopathology


Neither neurotic nor psychotic
neurotic individuals have some things in common with self-actualizing people:
heightened sense of reality
mystical experiences
creativity
detachment from other people

B. Progressed through the hierarchy of needs


experienced love and has rooted sense of self-worth
better able to tolerate the frustration of lower level needs
capable of loving a wide variety of people but NO obligation to love everyone
Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Criteria for Self-Actualization


C. Acceptance of the B-values
felt comfortable with and even demanded truth, beauty, justice, simplicity, humor and other B-values
D.

Full realization of ones potential for growth

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

B-values
being values
state of growth or being toward which self-actualizers evolve
indicators of psychological health and are opposed with deficiency needs
metaneeds

indicate that they are the ultimate level of needs

Maslow identified 14 B-values


truth

uniqueness

totality

goodness

perfection

effortlessness

beauty

completion

humor

wholeness

justice

autonomy

aliveness

simplicity
Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Metamotivation
also called B-motivation
motivation of self-actualizers which involves maximizing personal potential rather

than striving for a particular goal object


characterized by expressive rather than coping behavior
associated with the B-values
Metamotivation serves not to make up for deficits or reduce tension but rather to

enrich life and increase tension

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

D-Motivation

Metamotivation

reduction of tension by satisfying deficit growth tendencies; aims to enrich life


states or lacks
and increase tension
entails D-needs or deficiency needs

entails B-values or metaneeds

D-needs arise from an individuals need Metaneeds arise out of an individuals


for physiological survival or safety
drive to self-actualization and fulfill his
inherent potential

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
1. More Efficient Perception of Reality

easily detect phoniness in others

less prejudiced, unbiased

less afraid and more comfortable with unknown

have greater tolerance of ambiguity & actively seek it as well

accept doubt, uncertainty, indefiniteness and uncharted paths

philosophers, explorers and scientists

The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious.


Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
2. Acceptance of Self, Others, and Nature

accept themselves the way they are

accept others and have no compulsive need to instruct, inform or convert

can tolerate weaknesses, and are not threatened by the strengths of others

do not expect perfection in both themselves and others

realize that people suffer, grow old, and die

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
3. Spontaneity, Simplicity, and Naturalness

unconventional but not compulsively so

highly ethical but may appear unethical or nonconforming

live simple lives in the sense that they dont need to a complex cover in order to
deceive the world

unpretentious and not afraid or ashamed to express joy, awe, elation, sorrow and
anger

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
4. Problem-Centering

interest in problems outside themselves

task-oriented

extend their frame of reference far beyond self

unconcerned with the trivial and the petty

has a realistic perception which enables them to clearly distinguish between


important and unimportant issues in life

consider solving societal problems as a life mission or a calling


Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
5. The Need for Privacy

quality of detachment that allows them to be alone without being lonely

satisfied with their love and belongingness needs thats why they have
no desperate need to be surrounded by people

find enjoyment in solitude and privacy

spend little energy attempting to impress others

self-movers

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
6.

Autonomy

depend on themselves for growth even though at some time in their past they had
to have received love and security from others

Autonomy can be only achieved only through satisfactory relations with others

have confidence that allows self-actualizing people to not be disturbed by


criticisms

independence gives them an inner peace and serenity

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
7.

Continued Freshness of Appreciation

keenly aware of their good physical health, friends and loved ones, economic
security and political freedom

have a fresh vision of everyday phenomena

have an appreciation for their possessions

retain their constant sense of good fortune and gratitude for it


have the wonderful capacity to appreciate freshly and naively, the basic goods of
life with awe, pleasure, wonder

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
8. The Peak Experience

a moment of intense ecstasy similar to a mystical experience during which the self
is transcended

quite natural and part of human makeup

see the whole universe as unified

feel passive, receptive, more desirous of listening and more capable of hearing

feel more responsible for their activities and perceptions, more active and more
self-determined

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People

unmotivated, nonstriving and nonwishing

lasting effect on a persons life

most people, or almost most people, have peak experiences, or ecstasies

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
9.

Gemeinschaftsgefhl

community feeling or sense of oneness with all humanity

kind of caring attitude toward other people

identify themselves with other people

have a genuine interest in helping others

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
10.

Profound Interpersonal Relations

special quality of interpersonal relations that involves deep and profound feeling
for individuals

nurturant feeling towards others

close relationships are limited only to a few

tend to choose healthy people as friends, and avoid intimate personal


relationships with dependent or infantile people

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
11. Democratic Character Structure

friendly and considerate of with other people regardless of class, color, age, gender

unaware of superficial differences among people

willing to listen and have the desire to learn from anyone

they fight against evil people and evil behavior

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
12.

Discrimination between Means and Ends

clear sense of right and wrong conduct and have little conflict about basic values

set their sights on ends rather than means and have an unusual ability to
distinguish between the two

experience joy in the means of doing something and not just in terms of the end

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
13.

Philosophical Sense of Humor

nonhostile sense of humor

dislike for jokes that might be degrading to others

intrinsic to the situation rather than contrived; it is spontaneous rather than


planned

situation-dependent

Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing
People
14.

Creativeness

creative in their own way

have keen perception of truth, beauty and reality

15. Resistance to Enculturation

sense of detachment from their surroundings and are able to transcend a


particular culture

neither antisocial nor consciously nonconforming

autonomous, following their own standards of conduct and not blindly obeying
the rules of others
Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Love, Sex, and Self-Actualization


Self-actualizing people are capable of both giving and receiving love
No longer motivated by D-love (deficiency love)
B-love
love for the essence or Being of the other
mutually felt and shared and not motivated by a deficiency or incompleteness
within the lover
unmotivated, expressive behavior

Simply love and are loved


not harmful and it is the kind of love that allows lovers to be relaxed, open and
to be nonsecretive

Capable of a deeper level of love


Easily tolerate the absence of sex because they have no deficiency need for it
Ann Nicole R. Manahan

Psychopathology
BRITTANY A. LIM

Psychopathology
The deprivation of each need can lead to pathology.

For the Physiological needs , if these requirements are not met, the
human body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail.
- can lead to malnutrition, fatigue, obsession with sex

For the Safety needs, in its absence due to war, natural disaster,family
violence, childhood abuse, etc. - people may
(re-)experienceposttraumatic stress disorder or transgenerational trauma.
- anxiety, fear, insecurity and dread

Brittany A. Lim

Psychopathology
For the Love and Belongingness needs deficiencies due to neglect,
shunning, ostracism, etc. can impact the individuals ability to maintain or
form emotionally significant relationships such as, friendship, intimacy
and family
- defensive, overly aggressive, or timid

For the Esteem needs- imbalances from this level results to having a low
self-esteem or aninferiority complex
- self depreciation and lack of confidence

Brittany A. Lim

Psychopathology

For the Self-Actualization needs it is the failure to acquire the metaneeds (BValues)
Metaneeds are the being needs. Failure to satify them, thought Maslow, is
harmful just as the failure to satisfy the lower needs. Frustration of metaneeds
produces metapathology.

(B-values - wholeness, perfection, completion, justice, aliveness, richness,


simplicity, beauty, goodness, uniqueness, effortlessness, playfulness, truth, and
self-sufficiency)

Metapathology feeling of unfulfillment

When people do not feel metamotivation Maslow used this term to describe
the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive
for constant betterment.
Brittany A. Lim

Psychopathology
Failure to satisfy B- Values

Metapathology

Wholeness Disintegration is the metapathology

Beauty - Vulgarity, loss of taste, restlessness, bleakness

Playfulness - Grimness, depression, loss of zest in life, paranoid humorlessness,


cheerlessness

Truth Paranoia, mistrust, cynicism, skepticism

Justice Anger, cynicism, mistrust, lawlessness, total selfishness

Goodness Hatred, repulsion, disgust, reliance only upon self and for self

Aliveness Deadness, robotizing, loss of emotion and zest in life, experiential


emptiness
Brittany A. Lim

Psychopathology

Uniqueness Los of feeling of self and individuality

Perfection Hopelessness, and nothing to work for

Simplicity Overcomplexity, confusion, and bewilderment

Completion Incompleteness, hopelessness, and cessation of striving and


coping

Richness Depression, uneasiness, and the loss of interest in the world

Effortlessness Fatigue, strain, clumsiness, awkwardness, and stiffness

Self-sufficiency Responsibility given to others


Brittany A. Lim

Psychopathology
Metapathology is the thwarting of self-development related to failure to

satisfy the metaneeds. Metapathology prevents self-actualizers from


expressing, using and fulfilling their potential.
Reasons people may not become self-actualized include: poor childhoods,

lower economic conditions, inadequate education, anxieties and fears, and


theJonah Complex
Jonah Complex fear of success; fear of one's own greatness, the
evasion of one's destiny, or the avoidance of exercising one's talents.

Brittany A. Lim

Psychopathology
Any dilemma or challenge faced by an individual may trigger reactions

related to the "Jonah Complex". These challenges may vary in degree and
intensity. Such challenges may include career changes, beginning new
stages in life, moving to new locations, interviews or auditions, and
undertaking new interpersonal commitments such asmarriage. Other
causes include:
Fear of the sense of responsibility that often attends recognizing our own
greatness, talents, potentials
Fear that an extraordinary life would be out of the ordinary, and hence
not acceptable to others
Fear of seeming arrogant, self-centered, etc.
Difficulty envisioning oneself as a prominent or authoritative figure
Maslows own life story demonstrated his Jonah Complex
Brittany A. Lim

Psychotherapy
Brittany A. Lim

also has implication to psychotherapy, workplace,


gender and education.
Psychotherapy
The aim is for the clients to embrace the B-values.
It is largly interpersonal process which helps with the achievement
of love and belongingness needs.

Self- Actualization

Workplace
Maslows heirarchy of needs has become a major concept for
industrial-organization psychologists.

Gender

Both men and women have potential to achieve self-actualization.


Brittany A. Lim

Education

The most important educational goal is for students to learn. Another


important goal is to make this newly gained knowledge and information
purposeful and meaningful to the students so that it may be retained
and useful through their lives.

The goal, according to Maslow: The self-actualization of a person, the


becoming fully human, the development of the fullest height that the
human species can stand up to or that the particular individual can
come to.
Brittany A. Lim

Critique on Maslows HolisiticDynamic Theory


By: Brittany A. Lim

Evaluation
The ability to generate new research a little above average
Organization- Consistent with common sense

Excellent flexibility

Falsifiability low
Guides Action highly useful
Internally consistent

In terms of language- ambiguous and inconsistent

Overall- highly consistent

Parsimonious - moderate

Brittany A. Lim

Concept of Humanity
Pessimism VS Optimism
Causality VS Teleology
Uniqueness VS Similarities

Difficult to classify on:

Determinism VS Free Choice


Conscious VS Unconscious
Biological VS Social determinants of personality

Brittany A. Lim

End