You are on page 1of 101

Felia Delos Santos & Erika Luyun

Late Childhood
▫ 9 to 12 years old
▫ most children begin a rapid phase of transition
from childhood to adolescence. The term
“Puberty” refers to a stage of biological
maturation where a boy or girl becomes capable
of reproduction.
▫ The first signs of puberty usually begin to appear

The Skeletal & Muscular System
▫ Growth averages 2–3 inches per year
▫ Weight gain averages 5–7 lbs. each year
▫ Muscle mass and strength gradually increase;
baby fat decreases
▫ Ossification of bones

______________________________________________________
Late Childhood

Body Growth and Change

The Brain  Brain volume stabilizes  Improved attention. reasoning. and cognitive control  Increases in cortical thickness  Activation of some brain areas increase while others decrease  Shift from larger areas to smaller. more focal areas due to synaptic pruning ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Body Growth and Change .

Motor Skills ▫ Motor development becomes smoother and more coordinated ▫ Physical skills are a source of great pleasure and accomplishment for children ▫ Physical action is essential for these children to refine their developing skills ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Body Growth and Change .

boys usually outperform boys rather girls ▫ In fine motor skills. girls usually outperform boys ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Body Growth and Change . ▫ In gross motor skills involving large muscle activity.Motor Skills ▫ They should be engaged in active rather than passive activities.

mental actions that allow the child to do mentally what was done before physically ▫ Concrete operations are also mental actions that are reversible ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .Concrete Operational Thought ▫ is made up of operations.

Concrete Operational Thought ▫ Concrete operational child shows conservation and classification skills ▫ Concrete operational child needs clearly available perceptual supports to reason. thought becomes more abstract ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change . later in development.

organization. and imagery are among the important influences that are responsible for improved longterm memory ▫ Children’s knowledge also influences their memory ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .Memory ▫ Children’s long term memory improves during this stage ▫ Control processes or strategies such as rehearsal.

Memory Two important strategies: creating mental images and elaborating on information  Elaboration: engaging in more extensive processing of information • Fuzzy Trace Theory: • two types of memory representations: ▫ Verbatim memory trace: precise details of information ▫ Gist: central idea of information ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Metacognitive Knowledge ▫ This is the segment of acquired knowledge that involves cognitive matters. especially the way the human mind works. ▫ It is believed by many developmentalists that it is beneficial to school learning ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

and how effectively the mental activity is unfolding ▫ The source of much cognitive monitoring in children is other people ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change . what will be done next.Cognitive Monitoring ▫ This is the process of taking stock of what one is currently doing.

writing.Cognitive Monitoring ▫ Instructional programs in reading comprehension. and math have been designed to foster children’s cognitive monitoring of these activities ▫ Reciprocal teaching is an instructional procedure used to develop children’s cognitive monitoring ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

& evaluating evidence  Few schools really teach critical thinking • Creative Thinking: the ability to think in novel and unusual ways.Thinking • Critical Thinking: thinking reflectively & productively. and to come up with unique solutions to problems  Convergent thinking: produces one correct answer  Divergent thinking: produces many different answers to the same question ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Strategies for Fostering Creativity:
 Encourage brainstorming
 Provide environments that stimulate creativity
 Don’t over control students
 Encourage internal motivation
 Build children’s confidence

______________________________________________________
Late Childhood

Cognitive Change

Strategies for Fostering Creativity:
 Guide children to be persistent and delay
gratification
 Encourage children to take intellectual risks
 Introduce children to creative people

______________________________________________________
Late Childhood

Cognitive Change

Scientific Thinking:
Children tend to:

 Ask fundamental questions about reality
 Place a great deal of emphasis on causal mechanisms
 Be more influenced by chance events than by
overall patterns
 Maintain old theories regardless of evidence

______________________________________________________
Late Childhood

Cognitive Change

Intelligence • Intelligence: problem-solving skills and the ability to learn from and adapt to life’s everyday experiences • Individual Differences: stable. consistent ways in which people are different from each other ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Intelligence Test • Binet Tests: designed to identify children with difficulty learning in school  Mental age (MA): an individual’s level of mental development relative to others  Intelligence quotient (IQ): a person’s mental age divided by chronological age. multiplied by 100 ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Intelligence Test • Stanford-Binet Tests: revised version of the Binet test  Scores approximate a normal distribution—a bellshaped curve • Wechsler Scales: give scores on several composite indices  Three versions for different age groups ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Intelligence ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Intelligence ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

evaluate. compare. invent. and contrast  Creative intelligence: ability to create. design. and put ideas into practice ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .Types of Intelligence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: Intelligence comes in three forms:  Analytical intelligence: ability to analyze. judge. apply. implement. and imagine  Practical intelligence: ability to use. originate.

Types of Intelligence Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind:  Verbal: ability to think in words and use language to express meaning  Mathematical: ability to carry out mathematical operations  Spatial: ability to think three-dimensionally  Bodily-Kinesthetic: ability to manipulate objects and be physically adept ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

melody. and tone  Interpersonal: ability to understand and interact effectively with others  Intrapersonal: ability to understand oneself  Naturalist: ability to observe patterns in nature and understand natural and human-made systems ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change . rhythm.Types of Intelligence Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind:  Musical: sensitivity to pitch.

Controversies and Issues in Intelligence:  Heredity and genetics versus environment (increasingly higher scores suggest role of education)  Flynn effect  Bell curve: U.S. is developing large underclass of intellectually deprived ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Controversies and Issues in Intelligence:  Racial and cultural bias  Use and misuse of IQ tests  Classifying types of mental retardation  Classification as being gifted ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Evaluating Multiple-Intelligence Approaches: Pros:  Stimulated teachers to think more broadly about children’s competencies  Motivated educators to develop programs that instruct students in multiple domains  Contributed to interest in assessing intelligence and classroom learning ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Evaluating Multiple-Intelligence Approaches: Cons:  Multiple-intelligence views may have taken the concept of specific intelligences too far  Research has not yet supported the different types  Are there other types of intelligences? ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Differences in IQ Scores Influences of Genetics: Heritability: the variance in a population that is attributed to genetics ▫ Heritability of intelligence is about .75 ▫ Problems:  Heritability index is only as good as the data entered into the analysis  Assumes we can treat genetic and environmental influences as separate ▫ environment interact to influence intelligence ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Differences in IQ Scores Influences of Genetics:  One strategy is to compare the IQs of identical and fraternal twins  Most researchers agree that genetics and environment interact to influence intelligence ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Differences in IQ Scores  Environmental Influences:  Communication of parents  Schooling  Flynn Effect: rapidly increasing IQ test scores around the world • Increasing levels of education attained by more people • Explosion of available information  Interventions designed to help children at risk for impoverished intelligence ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Cognitive Change .

Developmental Characteristics ▫ Troublesome age ▫ Sloppy age ▫ Quarrelsome age ▫ Elementary school age ▫ Critical period __________________________________________________ Late Childhood .

Developmental Characteristics ▫ Gang age ▫ Age of Conformity ▫ Creative age ▫ Play age __________________________________________________ Late Childhood .

Troublesome Age • The time when children are no longer willing to do what they are told to do and when they are more influenced by their peers than by their parents and other family members _____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics .

_____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics . messy. careless. disheveled. unkempt) about their appearance and when their rooms are so cluttered that is almost impossible to get into them. untidy.Sloppy Age • The time when children tend to be careless and slovenly (sloppy.

Quarrelsome Age • The time when family fights are common and when the emotional climate of the home is from pleasant for all family members _____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics .

Elementary School Age • The child is expected to acquire the rudiments of knowledge that are essential for successful adjustment to adult life. _____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics .

Critical Period (in the achievement drive) • A time when children form the habit of being achievers. under-achievers or over achievers. _____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics .

Gang Age • Children’s major concern is acceptance by their age mates and membership of gang _____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics .

_____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics .Age of Conformity • Children are willing to conform to groupapprove standards in terms of appearance. speech an behavior.

Creative Age • The time in life span when it will be determined whether they will become conformist or producers of new and original work. _____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics .

• The extrovert nature naturally makes the child playful.Play Age • Is an overlapping of play activities characteristics of the younger and those characteristics of adolescence. _____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics . • The social situation provided in school develops his natural tendency to play.

_____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics . loyal and disciplined. • He is usually attracted to the school on account of the play situation provided by it.Play Age • Group play and group activity make the child more social.

• His individualistic and ego-centric nature at this stage is substantially reduced at this stage and instead he would love to live in groups when the children engage themselves in play activities.Play Age • He begins to acquire social virtues like friendship. _____________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Characteristics . cooperation & competition in group play w/ his own age mates.

Developmental Tasks ▫ Physical development ▫ Social development ▫ Cognitive development ▫ Emotional development __________________________________________________ Late Childhood .

▫ catering to different growth rates ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood developmental Task .Physical Development ▫ Variety of activities ▫ more complex motor skills ▫ Strength. balance and coordination ▫ small warm-up ▫ progressive activities.

Social Development ▫ enjoyment ▫ individual work ▫ rotation of roles ▫ cooperative work ▫ independent responsibility ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood developmental Task .

Social Development ▫ problem solving activities ▫ leadership opportunities ▫ fair play shared expectations ▫ team culture. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood developmental Task .

Cognitive Development ▫ leadership skills ▫ differing reasoning skills ▫ use of analogies in explanation ▫ decision-making and problem solving opportunities ▫ identify. social comparison ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood developmental Task .

Emotional Development ▫ use of role models ▫ success in meeting challenges ▫ feeling of self-worth ▫ mood swings ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood developmental Task .

caring environment ▫ praise and encouragement ▫ all experience success (including parent support of these needs) ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood developmental Task .Emotional Development ▫ positive.

Developmental Hazards ▫ Physical Hazards ▫ Psychological Hazards ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood .

Physical Hazards • A type of hazard that involves environmental hazards that can cause harm with or without contact ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .

Physical Hazards ▫ Illness ▫ Obesity ▫ Sex-inappropriate body build ▫ Accidents ▫ Physical disabilities ▫ Awkwardness ▫ Homeliness ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .

demanding.Illness • suffer mainly from occasional colds and stomach upsets. their school work may suffer and they may fall behind their peers in the learning skills. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . and difficult to live with • If sick for a long period of time. • makes them irritable.

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . parents may become intolerant in their attitudes towards the illness of their children. complaining about the extra work and the expense the illnesses entail.Illness • in some cases.

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . for avoiding regular activities or unpleasant task. they get more attention than usual. ‘Imaginary or faked illness’.Illness • some children sometime pretend illness • children learn that when they are ill. home disciplines are relaxed. • they repeat this technique. they are not expected to carryout their regular activities.

take bigger bites and are more likely to ask for second or third helping than their age-mates. diabetes.Obesity • may be due to a glandular condition but it is more often due to overeating • Studies of fat children have revealed that they eat faster. high blood pressure ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . • Obese children are more prone to diabetes • Girls are more likely than boys to be overweight • Pulmonary problems.

calling them by different funny names which make them feel inferior  Low self-esteem. • display lack of interest in acquiring different play skills • their playmates often tease them.Obesity • lack in socialization • lack in taking part in the active games. depression. exclusion from peer groups ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Sex-Inappropriate Body Build • Sometimes girls with masculine body builds and boys with girlish physiques are likely to the ridiculed by their peers and pitied by adults. a sex-appropriate body builds aids to good adjustment. • By contrast. • This leads to personal and social maladjustments.

Accidents • Older children who experience more than their share of accidents. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . usually learn to be more cautious • this may lead to timidity on their part concerning all physical activities and may even spread to other areas of behavior.

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Accidents • it develops into a generalized shyness that affects social relationships. which will develop physical as well psychological problems and maladjustments for the children. school work and personalities • sometime accidents may leave permanent physical scar.

specially the members of the peer group ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Physical Disabilities • Many physical disabilities occur as an aftereffect of an accident • more common among boys than girls • The seriousness of the after effect of an accident depends on the degree of the disability and on the way others treat the child.

Physical Disabilities • Most disabled children become inhibited and ill at ease in social situations • This results to poor social adjustments and this affects their personal adjustments. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . they often discover that their awkwardness and clumsiness prevent them from doing what their playmates do or from keeping pace with them in play. the start of thinking of themselves as inferior to their playmates.Awkwardness • Even As older children begin to compare themselves with their age mates. • This results.

lays the foundations for an inferiority complex. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Awkwardness • Because the motor skills play such an important role in children’s play and at school. the clumsy children find themselves in many situations where their awkwardness is apparent to themselves and to others • This reinforces their feeling of inadequacy which. in time.

Homeliness • not good-looking: plain or less than pleasing in appearance a homely face ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Psychological Hazards The hazards on stage are mainly the ones that affect children’s social adjustments. around which the major developmental tasks of this period are centered. They have a powerful influence on children’s personal adjustments and on their developing personalities.

Psychological Hazards ▫ Speech ▫ Emotional ▫ Social ▫ Play ▫ Conceptual ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .

Psychological Hazards ▫ Moral ▫ Hazards associated with interests ▫ Sex-role stereotyping ▫ Family-relationship ▫ Personality Development ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .

such as mis-pronunciation and grammatical mistakes. such as stuttering or lisping.Speech Hazards Four common speech hazards in late childhood -  1) A smaller than average vocabulary handicaps children in their school works as well as in their communications with others.  ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .  2) Speech errors. and speech defects.

Speech Hazards Four common speech hazards in late childhood : 3) Children who have difficulty speaking the language used in their school environment may be handicapped in their efforts to communicate and may be made to feel that they are “different”.  4) Egocentric speech and critical comments. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .

such as temper tantrum • if such unpleasant emotions as anger and jealousy are so dominant in them. they become disagreeable and unpleasant to be with. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Emotional Hazards • Children are considered immature by both age mates and adults if they continue to show unacceptable patterns of emotional expression.

▫ First. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Social Hazards Five types of children whose adjustments are affected by social hazards. children who are rejected or neglected by their peer group. They are deprived of opportunities to learn to be social.

Social Hazards Five types of children whose adjustments are affected by social hazards. the voluntary isolates who have little in common with their peer group. They come to think of themselves as having no chance of acceptance by the peers. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . ▫ Second.

the children who find the acceptance by already formed gangs difficult. socially or geographically mobile.Social Hazards Five types of children whose adjustments are affected by social hazards. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . ▫ Third.

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . ▫ Fourth.Social Hazards Five types of children whose adjustments are affected by social hazards. the children against whom there is group prejudice because of their race or religion.

Social Hazards Five types of children whose adjustments are affected by social hazards. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . the children become resentful and disgruntled group members because they want to be leaders of the group rather than the followers. ▫ fifth.

Play Hazards • Children who lack social acceptance are deprived of opportunities to learn the games and sports which are essential for them to belong to their gang. • Children are sometimes fond of fantasizing or day dreaming about some desirable events which are unlikely to happen. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . Such children may develop the habit of being rigid conformist. • They may also be discouraged from taking part in games and sports or creative activities.Play Hazards • Sometimes they are discouraged from fantasizing because the parents find it to be a “waste of time”.

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards . • When their social concepts are based on stereotypes. they tend to become prejudiced and discriminatory in their treatment of others.Conceptual Hazards • Children who have idealized self-concepts are usually dissatisfied with themselves as they are and with the way others treat them.

they are likely to persist and to continue to affect children’s social adjustments unfavorably ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Conceptual Hazards • Because such concepts are emotionally weighted.

  ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .   A failure to develop a conscience as an inner control over behavior.Moral Hazards Six hazards are commonly associated with the development of moral attitudes and behavior  The development of a moral code based on peer or mass .media concepts of right and wrong which may not coincide with adult codes.

Moral Hazards
Six hazards are commonly associated with the
development of moral attitudes and behavior
 Inconsistent discipline which leaves children
unsure of what they are expected to do; 
 Physical punishment which serves as a model
of aggressiveness in children; 

______________________________________________________
Late Childhood

Developmental Hazards

Moral Hazards
Six hazards are commonly associated with the
development of moral attitudes and behavior
 Finding peer approval of misbehavior so
satisfying that such behavior becomes
habitual;
 Intolerance of the wrong-doings of others.

______________________________________________________
Late Childhood

Developmental Hazards

Hazards Associated with
Childhood Interests
Two common hazards associated w/ childhood
interests:
 first, children may be uninterested in the things
that their age - mates regard as important
 second, they may develop unfavorable attitudes
toward some interests that would be valuable to
them, as in the case of health or school.

______________________________________________________
Late Childhood

Developmental Hazards

Hazards in Sex .mates regard as appropriate  unwillingness to play the approved sex roles ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Role Typing Two common hazards in sex-role typing  Failure to learn the elements of the sex roles their age.

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Relationship Hazards Conflicts among family members have two serious effects on children  It weakens the family ties  Such children carry this problem outside the home and thus become socially maladjusted.Family .

which leads to self – rejection • second. ▫ Egocentrism is serious because it gives children a false sense of their importance. the development of an unfavorable selfconcept. the carry-over of ego-centrism from early childhood. ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Developmental Hazards .Hazards in Personality Development Two serious hazards in personality development • first.

Related Theories in Late Childhood  Concrete operation Stage  Pre-conventional Morality  Latency Stage  Industry vs. Inferiority  Scaffolding .

______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Related Theories . ▫ In this stage. the child has the ability to understand Principles of Conservation and operational fashion.Concrete Operation Stage ▫ 7-11 years old ▫ Part of Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development ▫ The child have overcome most of the limitations of the previous stage. and his though is both more logical and flexible.

Concrete Operation Stage ▫ The older child is capable of seriation or the ability to order objects to some quantitative dimension (e.g. shortest to longest) ▫ Classification or recognizing hierarchical relations between sets and subsets is also emerge on this stage ▫ A child in this stage can also solve transitive reasoning ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Related Theories . from smallest to biggest.

avoidance of punishment or the attainment of rewards ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Related Theories .Pre-Conventional Morality ▫ 4-11 years old ▫ Part of Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development ▫ The primary consideration of children at the pre- conventional level as the act to the self ▫ In this stage. behaviors are motivated by self- interest.

wherein children may behave well and do good in anticipation of reward ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Related Theories . wherein children at this age define good and bad in terms of obedience or disobedience to rules and authority figure. reward orientation emerge.Pre-Conventional Morality ▫ Punishment & Obedience Orientation occurs at stage 1. ▫ In stage 2.

Latency Stage ▫ 6-11 years old ▫ Part of Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Theory of Development ▫ In this stage. there is a temporary repression of the libido ▫ The sexual and aggressive drives are now expressed in socially accepted forms (repression and sublimation) ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Related Theories .

ego.Latency Stage ▫ Peer relationships and the school are the child’s primary preoccupations ▫ The id. and superego is balanced ▫ This is also the period of RELATIVE CALM ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Related Theories .

this period is thought as a time of apprenticeship or learning an developing knowledge and skills ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Related Theories . Inferiority ▫ 6-11 years old ▫ Part of Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Development ▫ The school is the main preoccupation of children at this age.Industry vs.

Inferiority ▫ This is the time when the children begin to engage more seriously in hobbies.Industry vs. extra curricular activities. ▫ In this stage. and other lessons. competence an motivation develops ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Related Theories .

Scaffolding ▫ One of the Theory in Learning of Lev Vygotsky ▫ Scaffolding is a form of learning that student help and assist others students to learn from one another than a teacher at times ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Related Theories .

tutors provide a structure to support the learner’s problem solving ▫ Effective guidance involves the transfer of responsibility from tutor to learner ______________________________________________________ Late Childhood Related Theories .Scaffolding ▫ By providing instructions and help in the context of the learner’s activity.