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Chapter Three

Transformers

Faculty Engineering Technology
Assco.Prof. Dr. Ahmed N Abdalla

Induction Motors

Induction Motors
 Both IM and transformer works on the principle of
induced voltage
-

Transformer: voltage applied to the primary windings
produce an induced voltage in the secondary windings
Induction motor: voltage applied to the stator windings
produce an induced voltage in the rotor windings
The difference is that, in the case of the induction
motor, the secondary windings can move
Due to the rotation of the rotor (the secondary winding
of the IM), the induced voltage in it does not have the
same frequency of the stator (the primary) voltage

low-price. rugged. easy maintenance wide range of power ratings: fractional horsepower to 10 MW run essentially as constant speed from no-load to full load Its speed depends on the frequency of the power source • • not easy to have variable speed control requires a variable-frequency power-electronic drive for optimal speed control .Introduction  Three-phase induction motors are the most common and frequently encountered machines in industry - simple design.

Construction Slip rings Cutaway in a typical woundrotor IM. Notice the brushes and the slip rings Brushes .

cylindrical core Stator of IM .Construction  An induction motor has two main parts - a stationary stator • consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow.

Construction Two basic design types depending on the rotor design -squirrel-cage: conducting bars laid into slots and shorted at both ends by shorting rings. Usually Y-connected. Notice the slip rings Squirrel cage rotor Wound rotor . -wound-rotor: complete set of three-phase windings exactly as the stator. In this way. the rotor circuit is accessible. the ends of the three rotor wires are connected to 3 slip rings on the rotor shaft.

Principle of operation  This rotating magnetic field cuts the rotor windings and produces an induced voltage in the rotor windings  Due to the fact that the rotor windings are short circuited. for both squirrel cage and wound-rotor. and induced current flows in the rotor windings  The rotor current produces another magnetic field  A torque is produced as a result of the interaction of those two magnetic fields  ind  kBR  Bs Where ind is the induced torque and BR and BS are the magnetic flux densities of the rotor and the stator respectively .

Induction motor speed  So. the IM will always run at a speed lower than the synchronous speed  The difference between the motor speed and the synchronous speed is called the Slip nslip  nsync  nm Where nslip= slip speed nsync= speed of the magnetic field nm = mechanical shaft speed of the motor .

by 100.The Slip s Where s is the slip nsync  nm nsync Notice that : if the rotor runs at synchronous speed s=0 if the rotor is stationary s=1 Slip may be expressed as a percentage by multiplying the above eq. notice that the slip is a ratio and doesn’t have units .

Frequency  The frequency of the voltage induced in the rotor is given by Pn fr  120 Where fr = the rotor frequency (Hz) P = number of stator poles n = slip speed (rpm) P  (ns  nm ) fr  120 P  sns   sf e 120 .

the frequency of the induced voltage is equal to the supply frequency  On the other hand. if the rotor runs at synchronous speed (s = 0). the frequency will be zero .Frequency  What would be the frequency of the rotor’s induced voltage at any speed nm? fr  s fe  When the rotor is blocked (s=1) .

Torque  While the input to the induction motor is electrical power. This torque is related to the motor output power and the rotor speed  load Pout  m N . its output is mechanical power and for that we should know some terms and quantities related to mechanical power  Any mechanical load applied to the motor shaft will introduce a Torque on the motor shaft.m and 2 nm m  60 rad / s .

3. 10hp. Y-connected induction motor has a full-load slip of 5 percent 1. What is the synchronous speed of this motor? What is the rotor speed of this motor at rated load? What is the rotor frequency of this motor at rated load? What is the shaft torque of this motor at rated load? . four pole. 4.Example A 208-V. 2. 60 Hz.

nm  (1  s)ns  (1  0. f r  sf e  0. nsync 120 f e 120(60)    1800 rpm P 4 2.05) 1800  1710 rpm 3.7 N .05  60  3Hz 4.  load Pout Pout   m 2 nm 60 10 hp  746 watt / hp   41.Solution 1.m 1710  2  (1/ 60) .

it is easier if we can combine these two circuits in one circuit but there are some difficulties .Equivalent Circuit  The induction motor is similar to the transformer with the exception that its secondary windings are free to rotate As we noticed in the transformer.

e. if the rotor rotates at synchronous speed.Equivalent Circuit  When the rotor is locked (or blocked). Why? ER  sER 0 Where ER0 is the largest value of the rotor’s induced voltage obtained at s = 1(loacked rotor) . i. Why?  On the other side. s =1.e. s = 0. i. the largest voltage and rotor frequency are induced in the rotor. the induced voltage and frequency in the rotor will be equal to zero.

e. i. f rr  s f ee  It is known that X   L  2 f L  So. as the frequency of the induced voltage in the rotor changes.Equivalent Circuit  The same is true for the frequency. the reactance of the rotor circuit also changes Where Xr0 is the rotor reactance at the supply frequency (at blocked rotor) X r  r Lr  2 f r Lr  2 sf e Lr  sX r 0 .

Equivalent Circuit  We can rearrange the equivalent circuit as follows Actual rotor resistance Resistance equivalent to mechanical load .

Equivalent Circuit  Now as we managed to solve the induced voltage and different frequency problems. we can combine the stator and rotor circuits in one equivalent circuit Where 2 X 2  aeff X R0 2 R2  aeff RR I2  IR aeff E1  aeff ER 0 aeff  NS NR .

Power losses in Induction machines  Copper losses - Copper loss in the stator (PSCL) = I12R1 - Copper loss in the rotor (PRCL) = I22R2  Core loss (Pcore)  Mechanical power loss due to friction and windage  How this power flow in the motor? .

Power flow in induction motor

Power relations
Pin  3 VL I L cos   3 V ph I ph cos 

PSCL  3 I12 R1

PAG  Pin  ( PSCL  Pcore )
PRCL  3I 22 R2

Pconv  PAG  PRCL
Pout  Pconv  ( Pf  w  Pstray )

 ind

Pconv

m

Power relations
Pin  3 VL I L cos   3 V ph I ph cos 

PSCL  3 I12 R1

PAG  Pin  ( PSCL  Pcore )  Pconv  PRCL

R2
 3I
s
2
2

PRCL  3I 22 R2

Pconv  PAG  PRCL  3I 22 R2 (1  s )
s
Pconv  (1  s ) PAG
Pout  Pconv  ( Pf  w  Pstray )

 ind

PRCL

s

PRCL (1  s)

s
Pconv
(1  s) PAG


m
(1  s)s

The output power Pout.Example A 480-V. 4. . The stator copper losses are 2 kW. The friction and windage losses are 600 W. 50-hp. 3. 2. The power converted Pconv. and the stray losses are negligible. 60 Hz. three phase induction motor is drawing 60A at 0. The air-gap power PAG. The efficiency of the motor. the core losses are 1800 W. Find the following quantities: 1. and the rotor copper losses are 700 W.85 PF lagging.

9   37.9 kW 1000 3. Pconv  PAG  PRCL 700  38.Solution 1.85  42.6   37. Pin  3VL I L cos   3  480  60  0.4 kW PAG  Pin  PSCL  Pcore  42.3 kW 1000 . Pout  Pconv  PF &W 600  37.6 kW 2.8  38.4  2  1.

746 4.3  100  88% 42.Solution 37. Pout   100% Pin 37.3 Pout   50 hp 0.4 .

2.2 percent at the rated voltage and rated frequency. 3. Efficiency . Speed Stator current Power factor 4.464  XM= 26. Y-connected induction motor has the following impedances in ohms per phase referred to the stator circuit: R1= 0.Example A 460-V. four-pole.641 R2= 0. Pconv and Pout  ind and load 6. find the motor’s 1. 25-hp.3  The total rotational losses are 1100 W and are assumed to be constant. 60 Hz. For a rotor slip of 2. The core loss is lumped in with the rotational losses.332 X1= 1.106  X2= 0.

1 .76 1   12.Solution 120 f e 120  60   1800 rpm 1.0662  1.09  j 0.022) 1800  1760 rpm R2 0. Z 2  s 0.0773  31.022  15.76  1 1 Zf   1/ jX M  1/ Z 2  j 0.1  0. nsync  P 4 nm  (1  s )nsync  (1  0.464  15.464 2.038  0.332  jX 2   j 0.11.9431.

Pin  3VL I L cos   3  460  18.641  685 W PAG  Pin  PSCL  12530  685  11845 W .88  0.1   11. PF  cos 33.79  14.106  12.6 3.Solution Z tot  Z stat  Z f  0.88) 2  0.88  33.0733.833 lagging 4.6 A Z tot 14.0733.833  12530 W PSCL  3I12 R1  3(18.72  j 7.6  0.6  4600 V 3 I1    18.641  j1.9431.

1 hp 746 PAG 11845   sync 2 1800 Pout 10485   m 2 1760  62.Solution Pconv  (1  s ) PAG  (1  0.8 N.7% Pin 12530 .   Pout  100%  10485  100  83.  ind  load 10485 =  14.m 60  56.9 N.022)(11845)  11585 W Pout  Pconv  PF &W  11585  1100  10485 W 5.m 60 6.

Torque-speed characteristics Typical torque-speed characteristics of induction motor .

There is a maximum possible torque that can’t be exceeded. the rotor resistance is much greater than the reactance.Comments 1. torque increase linearly with the slip. In this range. 3. . 2. so the rotor current. The induced torque is zero at synchronous speed. Discussed earlier. The curve is nearly linear between no-load and full load. This torque is called pullout torque and is 2 to 3 times the rated full-load torque.

If the rotor is driven faster than synchronous speed it will run as a generator. 5. so the motor will start carrying any load it can supply at full load. The starting torque of the motor is slightly higher than its full-load torque. 6.Comments 4. The torque of the motor for a given slip varies as the square of the applied voltage. converting mechanical power to electric power. .

Complete Speed-torque c/c .

Maximum torque  Maximum torque occurs when the power transferred to R2/s is maximum.  This condition occurs when R2/s equals the magnitude of the impedance RTH + j (XTH + X2) R2 2  RTH  ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 sTmax sTmax  R2 2 RTH  ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 .

Maximum torque  The corresponding maximum torque of an induction motor equals  max  1  3VTH2    2 2 2s  RTH  RTH  ( X  X ) TH 2   The slip at maximum torque is directly proportional to the rotor resistance R2 The maximum torque is independent of R2 .

Maximum torque  Rotor resistance can be increased by inserting external resistance in the rotor of a wound-rotor induction motor. The value of the maximum torque remains unaffected but the speed at which it occurs can be controlled. .

Maximum torque Effect of rotor resistance on torque-speed characteristic .

How much power will be supplied by the motor when the torque is doubled? . 1. What will be the operating speed of the motor if its torque is doubled? 4.m under these conditions? 3.Example A two-pole. 50-Hz induction motor supplies 15kW to a load at a speed of 2950 rpm. What is the motor’s slip? 2. What is the induced torque in the motor in N.

0167 or 1.Solution 120 f e 120  50   3000 rpm 1. nsync  P 2 nsync  nm 3000  2950 s   0.m m 2950  2 60 .6 N.67% nsync 3000  Q no Pf W given  assume Pconv  Pload and  ind   load  ind Pconv 15 103    48.

33% and the motor speed will be nm  (1  s )nsync  (1  0. So.6)  (2900  2 )  29. Pconv   ind m  (2  48.0333)  3000  2900 rpm 4. In the low-slip region.Solution 3. if the torque is doubled the new slip will be 3. the torque-speed curve is linear and the induced torque is direct proportional to slip.5 kW 60 .

What is the maximum torque of this motor? At what speed and slip does it occur? 2.332 X1= 1.464  XM= 26.Example A 460-V. Y-connected wound-rotor induction motor has the following impedances in ohms per phase referred to the stator circuit R1= 0. If the rotor resistance is doubled. Calculate and plot the T-s c/c for both cases. 60-Hz. . What is the starting torque of this motor? 3. what is the speed at which the maximum torque now occur? What is the new starting torque of the motor? 4.3  1. four-pole.641 R2= 0. 25-hp.106  X2= 0.

106 .3) RTH  XM   R1   X  X  1 M  2 2 26.641)  (1.Solution VTH  V XM R12  ( X 1  X M ) 2 460  26.3   (0.2 V 2 2 (0.3 3   255.3 X TH  X 1  1.590  1.106  26.641)    0.106  26.

198 The corresponding speed is nm  (1  s )nsync  (1  0. sTmax   R2 2 RTH  ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 0.464) 2 2  0.590)  (1.198) 1800  1444 rpm .Solution 1.106  0.332 (0.

590) 2  (1.m .464) 2 ] 60  229 N.2) 2 2 2  (1800  )[0.590  (0.106  0.Solution The torque at this speed is  max 1  2s    3VTH2  R  R2 TH  TH    ( X TH  X 2 ) 2  3  (255.

464) 2 ] 60  104 N.m .590  0. by substituting s = 1 2  R2 3VTH   1  s  start   ind s 1  2 s  R2 2 R   ( X  X )  TH  TH 2 s  s 1   3VTH2 R2 s [ RTH  R2   ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 ] 2 3  (255.332) 2 1800   [(0.106  0.Solution 2. The starting torque can be found from the torque eqn.332) 2  (1.2) 2  (0.

then the slip at maximum torque doubles too R2 sTmax   0.396 2 RTH  ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 The corresponding speed is nm  (1  s )nsync  (1  0.Solution 3.396) 1800  1087 rpm The maximum torque is still max = 229 N.m . If the rotor resistance is doubled.

m .664) 2  (1.464) 2 ] 60  170 N.2) 2  (0.Solution The starting torque is now  start  3  (255.590  0.106  0.664) 2 1800   [(0.

Determination of motor parameters  Due to the similarity between the induction motor equivalent circuit and the transformer equivalent circuit. same tests are used to determine the values of the motor parameters. - - DC test: determine the stator resistance R1 No-load test: determine the rotational losses and magnetization current (similar to no-load test in Transformers). . Locked-rotor test: determine the rotor and stator impedances (similar to short-circuit test in Transformers).

DC test - - The purpose of the DC test is to determine R1. The DC source is adjusted to provide approximately rated stator current. and the resistance between the two stator leads is determined from the voltmeter and ammeter readings. A variable DC voltage source is connected between two stator terminals. .

the per phase stator resistance is 3 R1  RDC 2 . the per phase stator resistance is RDC R1  2 - If the stator is delta-connected.DC test - then RDC VDC  I DC - If the stator is Y-connected.

The only load on the motor is the friction and windage losses. so all Pconv is consumed by mechanical losses 3. The slip is very small . The motor is allowed to spin freely 2.No-load test 1.

No-load test 4. At this small slip R2 (1  s) ? R2 s & The equivalent circuit reduces to… R 2 (1  s) ? X2 s .

Combining Rc & RF+W we get…… .No-load test 5.

The PRCL is negligible because I2 is extremely small because R2(1-s)/s is very large.No-load test 6. the input power measured by meters must equal the losses in the motor. The input power equals Pin  PSCL  Pcore  PF &W  3I12 R1  Prot Where Prot  Pcore  PF &W . 8. 7. At the no-load conditions.

the magnetizing impedance XM will be known .nl If X1 can be found. The equivalent input impedance is thus approximately Z eq V   X1  X M I1. in some other fashion.No-load test 9.

current and power are measured. and the resulting voltage. a voltage is applied to the motor.Blocked-rotor test  In this test. the rotor is locked or blocked so that it cannot move. .

 The locked-rotor power factor can be found as Pin PF  cos   3Vl I l  The magnitude of the total impedance Z LR V  I .Blocked-rotor test  The AC voltage applied to the stator is adjusted so that the current flow is approximately full-load value.

Blocked-rotor test ' Z LR  RLR  jX LR  Z LR cos   j Z LR sin  RLR  R1  R2 ' X LR  X 1'  X 2' Where X’1 and X’2 are the stator and rotor reactances at the test frequency respectively R2  RLR  R1 X LR  f rated ' X LR  X 1  X 2 f test .

5 XLR 0.6 XLR Design C 0.5 XLR Design A 0.Blocked-rotor test X1 and X2 as function of XLR Rotor Design X1 X2 Wound rotor 0.7 XLR Design D 0.5 XLR .5 XLR 0.5 XLR 0.3 XLR 0.5 XLR Design B 0.4 XLR 0.

. four-pole. design A. 60-Hz.5-hp. (b) Find the slip at pull-out torque. 208-V. Y-connected IM having a rated current of 28 A.17 A Pin = 420 W Locked-rotor Test: Vl = 25 V f = 15 Hz I = 27.0 A No-load Test: Vl = 208 V f = 60 Hz I = 8. DC Test: VDC = 13.6 V IDC = 28.9 A Pin = 920 W (a) Sketch the per-phase equivalent circuit of this motor. and find the value of the pull-out torque.Example The following test data were taken on a 7.