Anoplura

,
Dermaptera and
Isoptera
Group 3

Cetacea. Sirenia and Proboscidea). They can cause localized skin irritations and are vectors of several blood-borne diseases. and are unknown from several orders of mammals (Monotremata.Anoplura Sucking lice (Anoplura. which are now divided among three suborders. As opposed to the paraphyletic chewing lice. They only occur on about 20% of all placentalian mammal species. Pholidota. formerly known as Siphunculata) have around 500 species and represent the smaller of the two traditional suborders of lice. Chiroptera. the sucking lice are monophyletic. Edentata. The Anoplura are all blood-feeding ectoparasites of mammals. Children appear particularly susceptible to .

normally with drawn inside a . often pointed and lacking a tentorial structure. • Sensilla present on the second and third flagellomere. • Mouth parts highly modified comprising three protrusible flexible stylets formed from the fused maxillae. • True solenophages (vessel feeders). three or usually five segmented.• 0. filiform.35 – 8 mm long. • Antennae short. • Compound eyes absent or reduced. • Head usually conical. • Cranial plates and sutures occasionally developed in nymphs but usually obliterate in the adult instar.

although the most anterior pair are usually fused. . although the paratergites are often well developed. • Tergal and sternal plates across the abdomen may be present and are usually weakly sclerotized.• Thorax usually small and completely fused bearing a single pair of spiracles. • Abdomen comprises eight pregenital segments. • The ninth visible segment bears the genital apparatus. • Legs often well developed with a modified tibia and one segmented tarsus that bears a single pretarsal claw.

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• • • • • • • • Echinophthiriidae • Neolinognathidae Enderleinellidae Pecaroecidae Haematopinidae • • Pedicinidae Hamophthiriidae • Pediculidae Hoplopleuridae • Pthiridae Hybophthiridae • Polyplacidae Linognathidae • Ratemiidae Microthoraciidae Hom e .

Earwigs are mostly nocturnal and often hide in small. and are active at night. they are one of the smaller insect orders. Africa. Eurasia. hence the scientific order name. moist crevices during the day. feeding on a wide variety of insects and plants.000 species in 12 families. especially the common earwig Forficula auricularia. Many earwig species display maternal care. Some groups are tiny parasites on mammals and lack the typical pincers. Damage to foliage. flowers. Earwigs have characteristic cerci. Earwigs rarely use their flying ability. and various crops is commonly blamed on earwigs. Australia and New Zealand. which is . and membranous wings folded underneath short forewings. "skin wings". a pair of forceps-like pincers on their abdomen.Dermaptera Earwigs make up the insect order Dermaptera and are found throughout the Americas. With about 2. Earwigs have five molts in the year before they become adults.

• • • • • Anisolabididae Chelisochidae Forficulidae Labiduridae Spongiphoridae .

The hind wings are membranous and folded in a fan-like way underneath the forewings when not in use.• Flattened elongated body • Heavily sclerotised pincer-like cerci. Some species are also wingless • Chewing (mandibulate) mouthparts • Moderately long antennae . Females have straight cerci with a inward pointing tip and males have curved cerci • 2 pairs of wings. The forewings are short and protectively hardened.

Hom e .

or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea. Termites were once classified in a separate order from cockroaches. but recent phylogenetic studies indicate that they evolved from close ancestors of cockroaches during the Jurassic or Triassic. However. termites divide labour among castes consisting of sterile male and female "workers" and "soldiers". they are not ants. with a few hundred more left to be described. Termites mostly feed on dead plant material and cellulose. generally in the form of wood. the first termites possibly emerged during the Permian or even the Carboniferous. About 3. Like ants and some bees and wasps from the separate order Hymenoptera. Although these insects are often called white ants. All colonies have fertile males called "kings" and one or more fertile females called "queens". .106 species are currently described.Isoptera Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera.

crops. Termite queens have the longest lifespan of any insect in the world.Termites are among the most successful groups of insects on Earth. colonising most landmasses except for Antarctica. Their colonies range in size from a few hundred individuals to enormous societies with several million individuals. and adult stages. . or plantation forests. which undergo a complete metamorphosis. Unlike ants. each individual termite goes through an incomplete metamorphosis that proceeds through egg. nymph. Several hundred species are economically significant as pests that can cause serious damage to buildings. are regarded as invasive species. Some species. Termites are a delicacy in the diet of some human cultures and are used in many traditional medicines. such as the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis). with some queens living up to 50 years. Colonies are described as superorganisms because the termites form part of a selfregulating entity: the colony itself.

elongate body • 2 pairs of membranous wings of equal length. Wings are present in reproductive castes only and shed after mating • Mandibulate (chewing) mouthparts • Antennae about the same length as the head .• Pale.

• • • • • • • Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae .