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Dermaptera and
Group 3

Sucking lice (Anoplura, formerly known as
Siphunculata) have around 500 species and
represent the smaller of the two traditional
suborders of lice. As opposed to the paraphyletic
chewing lice, which are now divided among three
suborders, the sucking lice are monophyletic.
The Anoplura are all blood-feeding ectoparasites of
mammals. They only occur on about 20% of all
placentalian mammal species, and are unknown
from several orders of mammals (Monotremata,
Edentata, Pholidota, Chiroptera, Cetacea, Sirenia
and Proboscidea). They can cause localized skin
irritations and are vectors of several blood-borne
diseases. Children appear particularly susceptible to

0.35 8 mm long.
True solenophages (vessel feeders).
Head usually conical, often pointed and lacking
a tentorial structure.
Cranial plates and sutures occasionally
developed in nymphs but usually obliterate in
the adult instar.
Antennae short, filiform, three or usually five
Sensilla present on the second and third
Compound eyes absent or reduced.
Mouth parts highly modified comprising three
protrusible flexible stylets formed from the
fused maxillae, normally with drawn inside a

Thorax usually small and completely fused

bearing a single pair of spiracles.
Legs often well developed with a modified
tibia and one segmented tarsus that bears a
single pretarsal claw.
Abdomen comprises eight pregenital
segments, although the most anterior pair
are usually fused.
The ninth visible segment bears the genital
Tergal and sternal plates across the
abdomen may be present and are usually
weakly sclerotized, although the
paratergites are often well developed.








Earwigs make up the insect order Dermaptera and are found
throughout the Americas, Africa, Eurasia, Australia and New
Zealand. With about 2,000 species in 12 families, they are one
of the smaller insect orders. Earwigs have characteristic cerci,
a pair of forceps-like pincers on their abdomen, and
membranous wings folded underneath short forewings, hence
the scientific order name, "skin wings". Some groups are tiny
parasites on mammals and lack the typical pincers. Earwigs
rarely use their flying ability.
Earwigs are mostly nocturnal and often hide in small, moist
crevices during the day, and are active at night, feeding on a
wide variety of insects and plants. Damage to foliage, flowers,
and various crops is commonly blamed on earwigs, especially
the common earwig Forficula auricularia.
Earwigs have five molts in the year before they become
adults. Many earwig species display maternal care, which is


Flattened elongated body

Heavily sclerotised pincer-like cerci.
Females have straight cerci with a inward
pointing tip and males have curved cerci
2 pairs of wings. The forewings are short
and protectively hardened. The hind wings
are membranous and folded in a fan-like
way underneath the forewings when not in
use. Some species are also wingless
Chewing (mandibulate) mouthparts
Moderately long antennae


Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the
taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily
Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea. Termites
were once classified in a separate order from cockroaches, but
recent phylogenetic studies indicate that they evolved from
close ancestors of cockroaches during the Jurassic or Triassic.
However, the first termites possibly emerged during the
Permian or even the Carboniferous. About 3,106 species are
currently described, with a few hundred more left to be
described. Although these insects are often called white ants,
they are not ants.
Like ants and some bees and wasps from the separate order
Hymenoptera, termites divide labour among castes consisting
of sterile male and female "workers" and "soldiers". All
colonies have fertile males called "kings" and one or more
fertile females called "queens". Termites mostly feed on dead
plant material and cellulose, generally in the form of wood,

Termites are among the most successful groups of insects on

Earth, colonising most landmasses except for Antarctica. Their
colonies range in size from a few hundred individuals to
enormous societies with several million individuals. Termite
queens have the longest lifespan of any insect in the world,
with some queens living up to 50 years. Unlike ants, which
undergo a complete metamorphosis, each individual termite
goes through an incomplete metamorphosis that proceeds
through egg, nymph, and adult stages. Colonies are described
as superorganisms because the termites form part of a selfregulating entity: the colony itself.
Termites are a delicacy in the diet of some human cultures and
are used in many traditional medicines. Several hundred
species are economically significant as pests that can cause
serious damage to buildings, crops, or plantation forests.
Some species, such as the West Indian drywood termite
(Cryptotermes brevis), are regarded as invasive species.

Pale, elongate body

2 pairs of membranous wings of
equal length. Wings are present in
reproductive castes only and shed
after mating
Mandibulate (chewing) mouthparts
Antennae about the same length as
the head